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General Assembly - 23 febbraio 1990
RESOLUTION B17R002

A/RES/S-17/2

23 Febbraio 1990

8th plenary meeting

Political Declaration and Global Programme of Action adopted by the General Assembly at its seventeenth special session, devoted to the question of international co-operation against illicit production, supply, demand, trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances

The General Assembly

Adopts the Political Declaration and the Global Programme of Action on international co-operation against illicit production, supply, demand, trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances annexed to the present resolution.

ANNEX Political Declaration

We, the States Members of the United Nations,

Assembled at the seventeenth special session of the General Assembly to consider the question of international co-operation against illicit production, supply, demand, trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances,

Deeply alarmed by the magnitude of the rising trend in the illicit demand, production, supply, trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, which are a grave and persistent threat to the health and well-being of mankind, the stability of nations, the political, economic, social and cultural structures of all societies and the lives and dignity of millions of human beings, most especially of young people,

Aware of the dangers posed for all countries alike by the illicit cultivation, production, supply, demand, trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, and aware also of the need for a comprehensive approach in combating them,

Conscious that the extraordinarily high levels of illicit consumption, cultivation and production of narcotic drugs and of illicit drug trafficking necessitate a more comprehensive approach to international co-operation in drug abuse control and counter-offensives at the national, regional and international levels,

Reaffirming our determination to combat the scourge of drug abuse and illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances in strict conformity with the principles of the Charter of the United Nations, the principles of international law, in particular respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of States, the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of States and non-use of force or the threat of force in international relations, and the provisions of the international drug control conventions,

Reaffirming also the provisions set forth in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961, and in that Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 and the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances adopted in 1988,

Reaffirming further the principle of shared responsibility in combating drug abuse and illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances,

Recognizing the links between the illicit demand, consumption, production, supply, trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and the economic, social and cultural conditions in the countries affected by them,

Deeply concerned about the violence and corruption generated by the illicit demand, production, trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and the high human, political, economic and social costs of drug abuse and of the fight against the drug problem, entailing the diversion of scarce resources from other national priorities, which in the case of developing countries includes development activities,

Conscious that international co-operation for the development of the developing countries should be strengthened, allowing all countries to participate more fully in an effective fight against the drug problem,

Recognizing the links between drug abuse and a wide range of adverse health consequences, including the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS),

Recognizing also that illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances is a criminal activity and that its suppression requires a higher priority and concerted action at the national, regional and international levels by all States, including rapid ratification of and accession to the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances,

Noting that the large financial profits derived from illicit drug trafficking and related criminal activities enable transnational criminal organizations to penetrate, contaminate and corrupt the structure of Governments, legitimate commercial activities and society at all levels, thereby vitiating economic and social development, distorting the process of law and undermining the foundations of States,

Recognizing that a growing number of countries, in particular developing countries, are affected by illicit transit trafficking in narcotic drugs because of their geographical location or economic situation, which imposes serious burdens on the drug law enforcement machinery of those countries and forces diversion of scarce resources from pressing developmental needs and other national priorities,

Convinced that the fight against illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances has to comprise effective measures aimed, inter alia, at eliminating illicit consumption, cultivation and production of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances; preventing the diversion from legitimate uses of precursor chemicals, specific substances, materials and equipment frequently used in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances; and preventing the use of the banking system and other financial institutions for the laundering of proceeds derived from illicit drug trafficking by making such activities criminal offences,

Alarmed at the growing link between illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and terrorist activities, which is aggravated by insufficient control of commerce in arms and by illicit or covert arms transfers, as well as by illegal activities of mercenaries,

Mindful of the results already achieved by the United Nations in the field of drug abuse control, including the Declaration and the Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Outline of Future Activities in Drug Abuse Control, adopted at the International Conference on Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking, as well as the United Nations Convention against Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances,

Convinced that action against drug abuse and illicit production of and trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances should, as a shared responsibility, be accorded a higher priority by the international community and convinced also that the United Nations should be the main focus for concerted action and should play an enhanced role in that field,

Considering that the goals of intensified international co-operation and increased efforts of States in that direction would be served by the proclamation of a United Nations decade against drug abuse,

Agree on the following:

1. We resolve to protect mankind from the scourge of drug abuse and illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances;

2. We affirm that the fight against drug abuse and illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances should be accorded high priority by Governments and by all relevant regional and international organizations;

3. We are determined to take the necessary actions to combat the drug problem, taking into account the fundamental responsibility resting with each State in that regard;

4. We shall expand the scope and increase the effectiveness of international co-operation against illicit demand, production, supply, trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, with strict respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of States and the principle of non-interference in their internal affairs;

5. We shall increase our efforts and resources in order to intensify international co-operation and concerted action, based upon the principle of shared responsibility, including the necessary co-operation and assistance to affected States, when requested, in the economic, health, social, judicial and law enforcement sectors in order to strengthen the capabilities of States to deal with the problem in all its aspects;

6. We shall pursue strategies that are comprehensive and multidisciplinary in scope and that comprise measures to eliminate illicit demand for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, cultivation of illicit crops and illicit drug trafficking, to prevent the misuse of the financial and banking systems and to promote effective treatment, rehabilitation and social reintegration;

7. We commend the efforts made by some States in the fight against illicit drug production, trafficking and consumption and urge that current levels of international co-operation be increased and strengthened;

8. We condemn the crime of illicit drug trafficking in all its forms and reaffirm our political commitment to concerted international action;

9. We are convinced that the international fight against illicit drug trafficking should be pursued in full conformity with the principles of non-interference in internal affairs and respect for the territorial integrity of States and free from unrelated political motivations;

10. We shall continue our national efforts in the simultaneous fight on all levels against the phenomenon of illicit drug trafficking, with special emphasis on the need for stronger measures to eliminate illicit demand for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances;

11. We shall reinforce our policies aiming at the prevention, reduction and elimination of illicit demand;

12. We shall intensify our efforts in the fields of health, education and public information, including well-targeted campaigns involving the relevant United Nations specialized agencies and non-governmental organizations, as an essential measure to reduce illicit demand;

13. We urge the international community to increase economic and technical co-operation to developing countries and to facilitate trade flows in support of viable alternative income schemes, such as crop-substitution programmes, by means of integrated rural development strategies, including facilitation of appropriate efficient marketing and sound economic policies, so as to eliminate illicit cultivation and production of narcotic drugs;

14. We call for international co-operation to assist and support transit countries, in particular developing transit countries, by implementing appropriate programmes of technical and financial assistance through competent international or regional organizations for the purpose of expanding and strengthening the infrastructure needed for effective control and prevention of illicit drug trafficking;

15. We stress the need for effective action to prevent the diversion for illicit purposes of precursors and other chemicals, materials and equipment frequently used in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances;

16. We urge the international community to strengthen international co-operation under mutually agreed conditions through bilateral, regional and multilateral mechanisms;

17. We stress that all initiatives undertaken within the United Nations in the field of international drug abuse control shall take into consideration the competence of its organs as defined in the Charter of the United Nations;

18. We shall further develop and utilize, to the maximum extent, existing bilateral and other international instruments or arrangements for enhancing international legal and law enforcement co-operation;

19. We reaffirm the principles set forth in the Declaration of the International Conference on Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking and undertake to apply, as appropriate, the recommendations of the Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Outline of Future Activities in Drug Abuse Control;

20. We urge States to ratify or accede to the United Nations conventions in the field of drug abuse control and illicit trafficking and, to the extent they are able to do so, to apply provisionally the terms of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances;

21. We commend the important work carried out by the organizations of the United Nations system in the field of international drug abuse control with regard to combating the abuse and production of and trafficking in illicit drugs and psychotropic substances, as well as the work done in other multilateral forums;

22. We commend also the positive action undertakn by the Division of Narcotic Drugs of the Secretariat, the Internatonal Narcotics Control Board and its secretariat, and the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control;

23. We call upon the United Nations, the specialized agencies and other organizations of the United Nations system to give higher priority in their programmes of work, in accordance with existing procedures, to international measures to combat illicit production, supply, demand, trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances;

24. We emphasize the importance of the development and implementation of a United Nations system-wide action plan aimed at the fulfilment of all existing mandates for drug abuse control and the implementation of subsequent decisions of intergovernmental bodies throughout the United Nations system;

25. We shall strengthen and enhance the capability of the United Nations to achieve more effective and co-ordinated co-operation at the international, regional and national levels against the threats posed by illicit production and illicit trafficking and abuse of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances;

26. We stress the need to reinforce United Nations structures for drug abuse control in order to increase their effectiveness and status;

27. We recognize the need for additional financial and human resources, which shall be made available for United Nations activities in the area of drug abuse control, bearing in mind the Organization's additional responsibilities in that regard;

28. We attach high priority to the speedy and effective implementation of the Global Programme of Action;

29. We proclaim the period from 1991 to 2000 the United Nations Decade against Drug Abuse, to be devoted to effective and sustained national, regional and international actions to promote the implementation of the Global Programme of Action, taking into account and paying due consideration to the guidelines for international decades recommended by the Economic and Social Council in its resolution 1988/63 of 27 July 1988;

30. We resolve to keep under constant review the activities set out in the present Declaration and in the Global Programme of Action.

Global Programme of Action I. INTRODUCTION

1. The international community confronts a dramatic problem of drug abuse and the illicit cultivation, production, processing, distribution and trafficking of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, insufficiently effective controls over or monitoring of specific chemical substances and monitoring of the economic benefits of drug trafficking. States are not in a position to deal with this scourge individually. Therefore, international solidarity and the concerted, collective and simultaneous action of the international community are required.

2. An important aspect of the fight against drug abuse has been the elaboration of international legal instruments. The adoption of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 and of that Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 and of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 were first important steps in that direction.

3. By its resolution 40/122 of 13 December 1985, the General Assembly decided to convene an International Conference on Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking. The Conference took place at Vienna from 17 to 26 June 1987 and adopted a Declaration and a Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Outline of Future Activities in Drug Abuse Control.

4. In order to reinforce and supplement the measures provided in existing legal instruments and to counter the new magnitude and extent of illicit drug trafficking and its grave consequences, a United Nations plenipotentiary conference, held at Vienna from 25 November to 20 December 1988, adopted the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.

5. The General Assembly, in its resolution 44/16 of 1 November 1989, decided to convene a special session of the Assembly to consider, as a matter of urgency, the question of international co-operation against illicit production, supply, demand, trafficking and distribution of narcotic drugs, with a view to expanding the scope and increasing the effectiveness of such co-operation.

6. Cognizant of the above, and following extensive deliberations at its seventeenth special session, the General Assembly, in order to achieve the goal of an international society free of illicit drugs and drug abuse, adopts the present Global Programme of Action and commits itself to its full and speedy implementation, where necessary following due consideration of the modalities by the competent technical bodies.

7. In adopting the Global Programme of Action, and without prejudice to the existing procedures, the General Assembly also decides to accord, within the United Nations system, a higher priority to the allocation of the necessary financial, personnel and other resources. There is a need for all parts of the United Nations system to galvanize efforts to improve international co-operation to stamp out the scourge of illicit drugs and drug abuse. The requirement for additional resources for that purpose is explicitly recognized, in the full expectation that that will be reflected as a high priority in the medium-term plan for the period 1992-1997 and in the programme budget for the biennium 1992-1993, as well as future medium-term plans and biennial budgets. The General Assembly also recognizes that the effective implementation of the Global Programme of Action will require examination of the structure of the existing drug control units based at the United Nations Office at Vienna with a view to enhancing their

effectiveness and status in the system.

II. ACTIVITIES OF THE GLOBAL PROGRAMME OF ACTION

8. The Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Outline of Future Activities in Drug Abuse Control shall be used by national authorities and interested organizations as a basis for developing and translating into action, at the national, regional and international levels, to the widest extent possible, balanced strategies aimed at combating all aspects of drug abuse and illicit trafficking. Those strategies shall include, in particular, the aspects described below.

A. Prevention and reduction of drug abuse with a view to elimination of the illicit demand for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances

9. States shall give higher priority to prevention and reduction of drug abuse with a view to elimination of the illicit demand for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances at the national and international levels. National strategies, plans and programmes for combating drug abuse shall be elaborated, adopted and implemented through the necessary policy and legislative adjustments, including the allocation of appropriate resources and services for prevention, treatment, rehabilitation and social reintegration.

10. The causes generating illicit demand for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, including its recent increase, shall be analysed and the necessary measures shall be identified in order to combat drug abuse at the root of the problem. In this regard, special attention shall be given to the social causes underlying the drug problem, which should be adequately reflected in national social policies.

11. Information and education programmes shall be used to prevent the abuse of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and to increase awareness of their harmful effects. In this context, States, relevant specialized agencies and non-governmental organizations shall co-ordinate and exchange information with a view to initiating well-targeted campaigns in this field.

12. The role of the United Nations as an advisory centre for collecting, analysing and disseminating information and experience in the field of reduction of illicit demand, for reviewing and evaluating national scientific programmes in the field of combating drug abuse and for co-ordinating efforts of States concerning those activities shall be further enhanced. Bodies of the United Nations system such as the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the United Nations Children's Fund (including its national committees), the United Nations Development Programme, the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organisation and the United Nations information centres shall play a more active role in collecting and disseminating information and exchanging experience.

13. States shall establish and promote national systems to assess the extent of drug abuse and to collect data on trends of abuse. For that purpose, they shall establish data bases that should be based on the international drug abuse assessment system being developed by the Division of Narcotic Drugs of the Secretariat with financial support from the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control. The Division, in collaboration with other United Nations drug control bodies and the World Health Organization, shall assist Governments in establishing such data bases and shall work to establish a data base concerning the nature and extent of drug abuse at the international level.

14. The Division of Narcotic Drugs shall publish and update periodically a digest listing national focal points that deal with various aspects of the drug problem, including information on direct channels of communication.

15. In order to assess the level of national and international progress towards prevention and reduction of the demand for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances with a view to its elimination, and in implementing the seven targets set out in chapter I of the Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Outline of Future Activities in Drug Abuse Control, the Division of Narcotic Drugs shall submit, by 31 December each year, a succinct questionnaire to all Governments, regional intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council.

The questionnaire shall request details of action taken in this regard at the national and regional levels, the results achieved by the measures taken, and details of any practical difficulties encountered. The Secretary-General is requested to prepare a report, in collaboration with the International Labour Organisation, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the World Health Organization, to be submitted to the Commission on Narcotic Drugs at its regular and special sessions analysing the information submitted and assessing, in particular, the best means of providing assistance to States in furthering demand-reduction strategies.

16. States and regional intergovernmental organizations shall co-operate fully in the preparation of that report by providing in good time the information required by the questionnaire.

17. In the light of the experience of operating that questionnaire and reporting system, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs shall consider the necessity and feasibility of elaborating, under the auspices of the United Nations, an international instrument that would deal especially with the reduction of the illicit demand for drugs and that would provide, inter alia, comprehensive and specific measures for the control and elimination of illicit demand for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, as well as for treatment and rehabilitation of drug addicts.

18. The recommendations of all international high-level meetings aimed at the reduction and eventual elimination of illicit demand for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, including those of the World Ministerial Summit to Reduce Demand for Drugs and to Combat the Cocaine Threat, to be held in London from 9 to 11 April 1990, shall be submitted to States for reference, if requested, in order to make it possible for them to consider such recommendations in the elaboration of their national anti-drug campaigns and policies.

19. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, in collaboration with the World Health Organization and other appropriate United Nations bodies, shall be encouraged to solicit, compile and analyse information on effective prevention strategies, including public information, education programmes and professional training, and on programme evaluation techniques and to disseminate that material to States upon request.

20. The United Nations Children's Fund shall be encouraged to give financial support to developing countries in order to enhance their campaigns to prevent drug abuse by children and the use of children for the illicit production and traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, as well as for implementing programmes to rehabilitate such children.

21. The International Labour Organisation shall be invited to provide, upon request, advice on education programmes to reduce drug abuse in the work-place and monitor their effectiveness.

22. Measures for the prevention of drug abuse shall be developed and included to the extent possible in the curricula of all educational institutions if circumstances so require. The expertise of relevant United Nations bodies should be made available to all countries, in particular all developing countries, in order to assist them in elaborating such curricula.

23. Information on the rational prescribing and use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and pharmaceutical preparations containing such substances shall be incorporated into the curricula of training institutions for health-care personnel.

24. The World Health Organization, in collaboration with United Nations drug control bodies, non-governmental organizations and other organizations involved in the rational use of pharmaceutical preparations containing narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, shall be encouraged to assist national educational authorities in developing training materials and conducting training courses to ensure that medical practitioners and other health personnel are well trained in rational prescribing and use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.

25. The mass media shall be encouraged to publish and disseminate information in support of national and international strategies for the elimination of illicit demand for narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.

26. The establishment of national committees or other ad hoc structures aimed at mobilizing public support and the participation of communities and at co-operating in and implementing the activities emanating from the Global Programme of Action shall be considered.

27. States shall, as appropriate, promote increased co-operation with and involvement of non-governmental organizations in the field of reduction of illicit demand, thus encouraging initiatives and programmes at the grass-roots level.

28. Appropriate United Nations bodies shall be invited to collaborate with non-governmental organizations with special expertise in the field of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances to identify and make available technical expertise on strategies and methods for reduction of illicit demand.

29. The United Nations shall undertake a review of activities of the United Nations system and the specialized agencies for the reduction of illicit demand in order to identify the needs for intensified action consistent with the principles of the Global Programme of Action.

B. Treatment, rehabilitation and social reintegration of drug addicts

30. National strategies in the health, social, legal and penal fields shall contain programmes for the social reintegration, rehabilitation and treatment of drug abusers and drug-addicted offenders. Such programmes shall be in conformity with national laws and regulations and be based on respect for basic human rights and the dignity of the individual, showing due regard for the diverse needs of individual drug addicts.

31. The United Nations shall act as a clearing-house for information on effective policies and techniques, programme modalities and resource materials for the treatment, rehabilitation and occupational reintegration of former drug addicts. the World Health Organization and the International Labour Organisation, in collaboration with other organizations of the United Nations system and non-governmental organizations, shall be encouraged to contribute to that end.

32. The relevant United Nations bodies should render assistance to interested States, in particular developing countries, in their programmes for treatment and rehabilitation of drug abusers.

33. Training programmes relating to the latest developments and techniques in the field of treatment of drug addiction and rehabilitation and reintegration of former addicts shall be conducted more regularly at the national, regional and international levels. Governments, the relevant United Nations bodies, the specialized agencies, intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations in a position to do so shall, upon request, provide advice, information and proposals on existing training programmes, new methods and techniques and other general guidelines for States wishing to develop their training programmes further.

34. The World Health Organization shall be encouraged to work with Governments with a view to facilitating access to drug-treatment programmes and to strengthening the capacity of primary health care to respond to drug-related health problems.

35. The World Health Organization shall be encouraged to continue to explore with Governments the development of health education programmes and policies for the reduction of risk and harm of drug abuse as a means of preventing the transmission by drug abusers of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and of securing appropriate treatment and counselling for drug abusers who are HIV-positive or who have developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and to report thereon.

36. The International Labour Organisation should prepare and publish guidelines for programmes to reintegrate former addicts into occupational activities or vocational training.

37. States shall, as appropriate, facilitate and promote the involvement of non-governmental organizations in all areas of treatment and rehabilitation and intensify their co-operation with the relevant United Nations bodies.

C. Control of supply of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances

1. Eradication and substitution of illicit production of narcotic drugs, and eradication of illicit processing of such drugs and of illicit production and diversion of psychotropic substances

38. States shall consider, at the national and international levels, means by which the internal sector of those economies that are affected by the illicit production and processing of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances might be strengthened, in order to support and strengthen the implementation, by competent national authorities, of effective anti-drug programmes, including the following measures:

(a) Prompt identification, eradication and substitution of illicit cultivation of narcotic plants, taking into account the need to protect the environment; for the purpose of crop surveys and monitoring efforts, such technologies as high-resolution satellite imagery and aerial photography could be used when agreement has been reached with the Government concerned;

(b) Further development and implementation of comprehensive and well-articulated reduction programmes with a view to eliminating illicit production of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances in countries affected by illicit production, taking particular account of traditional licit uses of such cultivation;

(c) Identification and provision of further incentives for crop substitution;

(d) Assessment and study, by the United Nations Environment Programme, of effects on the environment of the expanding cultivation and production of narcotic drugs and the use and disposal of chemical substances related to those activities, as well as methods used for the eradication of illicit production of narcotic drugs;

(e) Extension of the scope of economic and technical co-operation in support of crop substitution and integrated rural development programmes and other economic and technical programmes aimed at reducing illicit production and processing of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances;

(f) Establishment of complementary programmes in the fields of employment, health, housing and education;

(g) Elaboration and implementation of programmes for agro-industrial development;

(h) Elaboration and implementation of programmes for economic recovery of the social and economic sectors in countries that are adversely affected by the diversion for supply-reduction programmes of resources that would otherwise be used for development.

39. The external sectors of those economies that are affected by illicit production and processing of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances shall be strengthened in order to support and strengthen the implementation by competent national authorities of effective anti-drug programmes by the following means:

(a) Consideration of measures to strengthen international co-operation to facilitate trade flows, in particular measures to create expanded opportunities for trade and investment in order to provide access to international markets for crop-substitution products and other goods produced by countries affected by the illicit production and processing of narcotic drugs;

(b) Consideration by States of entering into multilateral, bilateral or regional agreements with countries affected by illicit drug production and processing, with a view to facilitating access by those countries to international markets and to assisting them in strengthening and adapting their internal capacity to produce exportable goods;

(c) Consideration of economic and other forms of co-operation with developing countries directly affected by the illicit transit of narcotic drugs through their territories, including measures to create expanded opportunities for trade and investment;

(d) Regular submission by States to the relevant United Nations drug control bodies of information on the extent of the manufacture, availability and abuse of illicit synthetic drugs in their territories.

2. Licit production, manufacture and supply of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances

40. A balance shall be maintained between demand and supply of raw materials, intermediates and final products for legitimate uses, including medical and scientific purposes.

41. International co-operation, solidarity and assistance are called for to overcome the problem of excess stock of opiate raw materials in traditional supplier countries. This may include international assistance, particularly to developing countries, to help them establish the necessary opiate drug management regime to enable them to meet their potential legitimate need for opiates.

3. Co-operation on the multilateral level

42. The United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control, in collaboration, where appropriate, with the United Nations Development Programme and other United Nations bodies, is invited to elaborate for consideration by States a subregional strategy covering all aspects of drug abuse control and concentrating on the most affected areas where the problems are most complex and grave. States shall increase their co-operation with the Fund in support of such a subregional strategy.

43. States should endeavour to obtain the support of international, regional and national financial institutions, within their respective areas of competence, with the goal of identifying alternative development and crop-substitution programmes to support countries so that they can carry out sound economic policies and effective programmes against illicit drugs.

States should also encourage those institutions to consider the economic and social consequences of drug trafficking when analysing the economic systems of those countries. In this regard, those institutions should consider availing themselves of assistance from and co-operation with the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control.

44. Specialized agencies and other United Nations bodies such as the United Nations Development Programme and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, as well as the international financial institutions, in accordance with their mandates, should consider the possibility of undertaking further activities in the field of prevention and substitution of illicit production of narcotic drugs.

4. Monitoring and control mechanisms

45. States shall take all necessary measures, such as the conclusion of bilateral and regional agreements, to establish monitoring and control systems to prevent diversion from legitimate purposes of specific chemical substances, materials and equipment frequently used in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, in particular through the application of articles 12 and 13 of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances adopted in 1988.

46. Consideration shall be given to the convening of an international conference on the production and distribution of chemical products used in the illicit production of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, in order to co-ordinate efforts for more effective prevention of the diversion of precursor chemicals, specific substances, materials and equipment for illicit purposes. It is desirable that States include representatives of manufacturing and distribution enterprises in their delegations to that conference.

47. The World Health Organization, in collaboration with the Division of Narcotic Drugs and the International Narcotics Control Board, should assist national drug regulatory authorities in developing and strengthening their pharmaceutical administrations and control laboratories in order to enable them to control pharmaceutical preparations containing narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.

48. Governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and the United Nations shall be encouraged to co-operate in measures within the guidelines set out in the Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Outline of Future Activities in Drug Abuse Control to strengthen national and international systems of control of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, in particular those established under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961, and that Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971.

49. The International Narcotics Control Board is invited to advise States, at their request, and to extend its technical co-operation activities with a view to furthering the aims of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 and that Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971 and the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances adopted in 1988.

50. Special attention shall be paid to co-operation that will enable States to strengthen their drug detection and pharmaceutical control laboratories, as well as their police and customs activities in the field of drug control.

D. Suppression of illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances

1. Traffic 51. States shall proceed rapidly and make every effort to ratify or accede to the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, adopted in 1988, in order to enable the entry into force of the Convention, preferably by the end of 1990.

52. The United Nations, in particular the Division of Narcotic Drugs, the International Narcotics Control Board and the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control, shall provide expertise and assistance to States, at their request, to enable them to establish the legislative and administrative measures for the ratification and effective implementation of the United Nations Convention.

53. States shall, to the extent and where they are able to do so, apply provisionally the measures set forth in the United Nations Convention.

54. Consistent with the United Nations Convention, consideration shall be given to the conclusion of bilateral, regional and multilateral agreements and other arrangements aimed at suppressing illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.

55. States that have not yet done so shall consider ratification of or accession to the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 and that Convention as amended by the 1972 Protocol Amending the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 1971.

56. States in a position to do so and the organizations of the United Nations system, in particular the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control, shall provide appropriate technical and financial support to enable States, at their request, to establish effective mechanisms against illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances. Particular attention shall be given, in that regard, to the strengthening of interdiction capabilities of transit States, including control of land, sea and air boundaries. To that end, States should undertake an analysis of the methods and routes used for illicit transit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, and should monitor them in their respective territories on a continuing basis, bearing in mind that the routes and methods used change frequently and affect a growing number of States. States shall consider appropriate information-sharing in this respect on a bilateral, regional or multilateral basis.

57. Interested States may consider, in conformity with international law and the Charter of the United Nations, the possibility of jointly establishing border inspection check-points, with a view to suppressing illicit trans-boundary movement of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, without affecting the national sovereignty and territorial integrity of States.

58. Specialized agencies such as the International Civil Aviation Organization and the International Maritime Organization, in collaboration with member States and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, shall be invited to expand the development of programmes whereby such organizations and member States work with the transportation industry to suppress illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.

59. States shall make increased use of the meetings of Heads of National Drug Law Enforcement Agencies and other intergovernmental organizations, such as the Customs Co-operation Council and the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol), regional co-operation arrangements and other relevant institutional frameworks, for the purpose of co-ordinating co-operation in law enforcement and expanding programmes of training for law enforcement personnel in investigative matters and methods, interdiction and narcotics intelligence.

60. The United Nations, in particular the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control, should assist States, at their request, in equipping and strengthening their law enforcement authorities and criminal justice systems.

2. Distribution

61. States shall strengthen their national efforts to curb and eradicate domestic illicit commerce and distribution of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.

E. Measures to be taken against the effects of money derived from, used in or intended for use in illicit drug trafficking, illegal financial flows and illegal use of the banking system

62. Priority shall be accorded to the implementation of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, adopted in 1988, and the conclusion of bilateral, regional and multilateral agreements on tracing, freezing and seizure and forfeiture or confiscation of property and proceeds derived from, used in or intended for use in illicit drug trafficking.

63. Mechanisms shall be developed to prevent the banking system and other financial institutions from being used for the processing and laundering of drug-related money. To this end, consideration should be given by States to entering into bilateral, regional and multilateral agreements and developing mechanisms to trace property and proceeds derived from, used in or intended for use in drug-related activities through the international banking system, facilitate access to banking records and provide for the exchange of information between law enforcement, regulatory or investigative agencies concerning the financial flow of property or proceeds related to illicit drug trafficking.

64. The Division of Narcotic Drugs of the Secretariat, in co-operation with the Customs Co-operation Council and the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol), should promote bilateral or regional exchanges of information between governmental regulatory or investigative agencies concerning the financial flow of illicit drug proceeds.

65. The Division of Narcotic Drugs and Interpol shall be invited to develop a repository of laws and regulations on money laundering, currency reporting, bank secrecy and forfeiture of property and proceeds, as well as procedures and practices designed to prevent banking systems and other financial institutions from money laundering, and shall make this information available to States, at their request.

66. States shall consider enacting legislation to prevent the use of the banking system for the processing and laundering of drug-related money, inter alia, through declaring such activities criminal offences.

67. States shall consider enacting legislation to permit the seizure and forfeiture of property and proceeds derived from, used in or intended for use in illicit drug trafficking. To that end, consideration should be given by States to concluding bilateral and multilateral agreements to enhance the effectiveness of international co-operation, taking into particular account article 5, paragraph 5, of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances.

68. States shall encourage international, regional and national financial associations to develop guidelines to assist their members in co-operating with government authorities in identifying, detecting, tracing, freezing and seizing proceeds and property related to illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.

69. The elaboration of international agreements providing for stringent controls on money derived from, used in or intended for use in drug-related activities and penalizing the laundering of such money might be considered.

Such instruments might also deal with the forfeiture or confiscation of funds, proceeds and property acquired through revenues deriving from drug-related activities.

70. States shall consider measures on an international level, including the feasibility of a United Nations facility to strengthen the gathering, collation and exchange of information on the financial flow from drug-related funds, giving particular emphasis to principles, rules and national law concerning the protection of ongoing law enforcement investigations and of individuals with regard to automatic processing of personal data.

71. States should encourage international, regional and national financial institutions, within their respective areas of competence, to pay special attention, in their analyses of the economies of States, to the characteristics and magnitude of the conversion and transfer of drug-related monies in order to contribute to international efforts aimed at counteracting the negative economic and social consequences of the drug problem.

72. States shall consider the possibility of using forfeited property and proceeds for activities to combat drug abuse and illicit trafficking. In that context, the possible use of such proceeds and property or their equivalent value for United Nations drug-related activities shall also be taken into consideration.

73. All measures and proposals on possible action to prevent the use of the banking systems and financial institutions for money laundering, such as the conclusions arising from the study undertaken by the Financial Action Task Force, established at the Summit of seven major industrial nations, held in Paris from 14 to 16 July 1989, shall be made available to all States for information.

F. Strengthening of judicial and legal systems, including law enforcement

74. States shall, as soon as possible, ratify or accede to the United Nations conventions in the field of drug abuse control and illicit trafficking.

75. States in a position to do so and the United Nations, strengthening their action in co-ordination with the regional institutes of the United Nations with mandates in this sphere, shall provide advice and legal and technical assistance to enable States, at their request, to adapt their national legislation to international conventions and decisions dealing with drug abuse and illicit trafficking.

76. States are invited to give consideration to the model treaties on mutual assistance in criminal matters and on extradition, which contain specific provisions related to illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances and are to be dealt with by the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders.

77. States shall encourage international and regional organizations to elaborate model agreements on co-operation among customs officials, law enforcement agencies and other interested organs in the field of combating drug abuse and illicit trafficking.

78. The scope of international co-operation in support of technical assistance programmes aimed at the strengthening of judicial, legal and law enforcement systems, in particular in the field of the administration of justice, shall be extended. Particular attention shall be given to the training of personnel at all levels.

79. Measures to protect the judiciary from any form of exposure and intimidation threatening its independence and integrity shall be studied and promoted.

80. The United Nations shall act as a clearing-house for information on training programmes in drug law enforcement, including training for national narcotics agents in investigative methods, interdiction and narcotics intelligence.

81. Consideration shall be given to establishing a capability within the United Nations system to co-ordinate the provision by States of training and equipment to other States, at their request, for their own anti-drug operations, within their territories, to inhibit the use, interdict the supply and eliminate the illicit trafficking of drugs.

82. Since the International Law Commission has been requested to consider the question of establishing an international criminal court or other international trial mechanism with jurisdiction over persons alleged to be engaged in illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs across national frontiers, the Administrative Committee on Co-ordination shall consider, in its annual adjustments to the United Nations system-wide action plan on drug abuse control requested by the General Assembly in its resolution 44/141 of 15 December 1989, the report of the International Law Commission on the question.

83. States shall consider the appropriateness of establishing arrangements, on the basis of bilateral, regional and multilateral agreements, which would allow them to benefit from one another's criminal justice system in dealing with similar drug-related offences.

84. Consideration shall be given to establishing a register of anti-drug expertise and services, under the supervision of the Division of Narcotic Drugs, which could be made available to States, at their request.

85. A review should be undertaken of international and regional law enforcement activities funded or sponsored by the United Nations, as well as those of other intergovernmental organizations and regional arrangements, to ensure a coherent approach to law enforcement activities within the overall context of the Global Programme of Action.

G. Measures to be taken against the diversion of arms and explosives and illicit traffic by vessels, aircraft and vehicles

86. States shall consider the adoption of measures, within their territories, to strengthen arrangements for controlling or monitoring the licit transportation of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, including the vessels, aircraft and vehicles being used for that purpose, so as to prevent their misuse for the illicit transportation of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.

87. Effective measures should be taken to prevent illicit and covert transfers of arms and explosives and their diversion to illicit drug traffic-related activities.

88. Alarmed by the growing link between illicit traffic in narcotic drugs, illegal activities of mercenaries and subversive and terrorist activities, States shall take prompt measures on their prevention.

89. States shall take strict measures to prevent private aircraft, vessels and vehicles registered in their territory from engaging in illicit drug trafficking and related activities.

H. Resources and structure

90. There is need both for optimum utilization of existing resources of the United Nations drug-related units and for additional resources to be allocated to those units in order to enable them fully to implement their mandates, bearing in mind their increased responsibilities.

91. A higher priority shall be accorded to United Nations drug control activities in the medium-term plan for the period 1992-1997 and in the corresponding biennial budgets, and the General Assembly, at its forty-fifth session, is invited to take appropriate action in this regard, in accordance with existing procedures.

92. Priority shall be given to providing, on both a short-term and long-term basis, extrabudgetary support to enhance the efficiency of the United Nations structure for drug abuse control and to achieve and promote a truly comprehensive global programme of action.

93. Intensification of efforts at the national level and increased intergovernmental co-operation require a commensurate strengthening of the United Nations drug control organs and their secretariats. Against this background, the functioning of the United Nations structure for drug abuse control needs to be reviewed and assessed, in accordance with the mandate given to the Secretary-General by the General Assembly in paragraph 4 of its resolution 44/141, for the purpose of identifying alternative structural possibilities, the end result being the establishment of a stronger, more efficient United Nations drug control structure with enhanced status, with a report to be made to the General Assembly at its forty-fifth session.

94. Attention shall be given to the need for (a) coherence of actions within the United Nations drug-related units and co-ordination, complementarity and non-duplication of all drug-related activities across the United Nations system; (b) integration of drug-related information within the United Nations system; (c) integration of the reduction of illicit demand in United Nations programming; (d) integration of law enforcement field expertise in United Nations programmes; (e) compliance with all non-discretionary obligations mandated by the three drug control conventions; and (f) an estimate of resources necessary to carry out these mandates successfully.

95. More States should contribute financial and other resources to the operational activities of the United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control in order to enable the Fund to expand its technical co-operation programmes and to develop an operational structure capable of assisting States in joint efforts on the subregional level.

III. FOLLOW-UP MEASURES

96. States should take the necessary measures to promote and implement the Global Programme of Action and to translate it into practical action to the widest possible extent at the national, regional and international levels.

The United Nations and its relevant bodies and specialized agencies, other relevant intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations should extend their co-operation and assistance to States in the promotion and implementation of the Global Programme of Action.

97. The Commission on Narcotic Drugs and the United Nations drug control bodies should continuously monitor the progress on the implementation of the Global Programme of Action, and the Secretary-General should report annually to the General Assembly on all activities relating to the Global Programme of Action and the efforts of Governments.

98. The Secretary-General shall, in consultation with all Member States, identify, whenever necessary, a limited number of experts, from different regions of the world, on various aspects pertaining to the drug problem to advise him and existing United Nations drug control units and other bodies and specialized agencies on specific issues dealt with in the Global Programme of Action that may require further elaboration. These experts shall be funded exclusively from voluntary contributions.

99. The United Nations Decade against Drug Abuse, covering the years 1991 to 2000, as proclaimed by the General Assembly in the Political Declaration adopted at its seventeenth special session, is a period for intensifying and sustaining international, regional and national efforts in the fight against drug abuse on the basis of the measures contained in the Global Programme of Action.

100. The International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking, 26 June, as proclaimed by the General Assembly in its resolution 42/112 of 7 December 1987, shall be observed in the continuing effort to raise public awareness of the fight against drug abuse and illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, as well as to promote preventive measures.

 
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