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Pronozin Alexander - 21 gennaio 1991
Survey on Conscientious Objection in the Soviet Union
by Alexander Pronozin


Conscientious Objection to Military Service

Overview of the Situation in the USSR

Translator A. Smirnov

Current Legislation

In the USSR, like in most European countries, manning of armed forces is accomplished on the basis of regularly conducted call-ups. The Constitution of the USSR in Articles 31 and 63 commits every physically fit man to military service (see Appendix 1). In practice this Constitutional provision is regulated by the USSR law "On the Compulsory Military Service" having legal force in the entire territory of the Soviet Union.

Personal convictions of whatever nature can serve as no grounds for permitting exemption from compulsory military service. The notion of objection as such to military service is not envisaged by the Soviet legislation. Contempt of a call-up for whichever reasons and in whatever forms is a criminally punishable act and is qualified as "evading the regular call-up for active service". As a punishment Article 80 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and similar articles of the Criminal Codes of the union republics envisage imprisonment for a term of up to three years in reform and work farms with general custody regime (see Appendix 2). Having served the term of imprisonment is no factor permitting exemption from compulsory military service. On the contrary, for repeated refusals to perform military service a graver punishment is envisaged - a term of imprisonment of up to five years in a camp with a stricter custody regime. The lower level of the draft age has been determine

d at 18 years, the upper - at 27 years. It is at the age of 27 that the criminal prosecution for repeated refusal to perform military service is terminated.

Objection to Military Service in the USSR and

in Russia in the Past

The issue of objection to military service in Russia has a long history. As far back as centuries ago some religious communities residing in Russia came into grave conflict with the state. In the beginning of the 20th century the major part of objectors to military service consisted of Mennonites, evangelists, Baptists, Adventists of the seventh day, dukhobors and followers of Leo Tolstoi's pacifist teaching. During World War I many of them were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment.

After the Bolshevik revolution the situation changed drastically. On January 4, 1919 the Council of People's Commissars adopted a Decree on exemption from military service on the basis of religious beliefs. The Decree issued at the height of the Civil War provided to religious objectors the right to substitute military duty medical or other social service for military duty. According to the Decree a conscript could on his own choose any kind of labour service which equaled in length the military one. In exceptional cases complete exemption from any forced conscription was permitted. Thus Soviet Russia alongside with Great Britain (1916) and Denmark (1917) was one of the first states to acknowledge the right to refuse military service.

From the second half of the twenties through toughening practices and legislative innovations the possibilities of objection were unswervingly reduced to naught. The Stalin dictatorship put an end to the right to refuse armed service, which was later formally laid down in the Law on compulsory military service of September 1, 1939.

Objection to Military Service in the Country as a Whole

The repressive regime and atheistic policies of the state failed to put an end to these practices of objection to military service. During the years of "stagnation" the bulk of objectors consisted of the Jehovah's Witnesses, Adventists of the seventh day and followers of other religious sects. Cases of refusals to perform military service for reasons arising from political and pacifist motives were also known. State authorities gave no data on the number of objectors to military service and of those sentenced for it, trying to pretend that the problem was non-existent. Judging by fragmentary information that leaked into statements of some officials one can assume that the number of objectors annually didn't exceed 1000 men, about 250 of whom were prosecuted according to the criminal code. Such evaluations are confirmed by the figures of 1985, recently made public by the Ministry of Defense. Then 839 men evaded military service, 256 of them were convicted (1). From the cases which few and far between were mad

e public it is known that generally those refusing for the first time were sentenced to two years of imprisonment in a criminal camp with general custody regime.

The changing political situation in the country gave the phenomenon of objection to military service entirely new dynamics and character. Thus, according to the now more accessible official data, in 1988 there were 1044 object-ors to military service. In 1989 the number went up to 6647 men (2), and just the spring of 1990 witnessed five times as many objectors as the whole of the previous year (3). Accor-ding to the forecasts of experts of the Ministry of Defense in the near future the number of objectors will continue to skyrocket.

Desertion from the armed forces, brought about by the inability to continue service on the basis of convictions of servicemen is becoming an increasingly common phenomenon. Thus, according to the information issued by the press center of the USSR Ministry of Defense in 1990 due to political motives 68 men deserted from units in May, 137 - in June, 229- in July, and 259 - in August (4).

Such violation of state legislation which is acquiring mass scale arises primarily from new motives of objecting to military service. Doing away with the enemy image regarding other states; rising movements in many republics for national self-determination; mass scale violations of human rights in the army; making public the historic truth about the crimes committed by the Soviet army against both its own people and the entire humanity; rising antigovernment sentiments; resorting to the armed forces for resolving issues in home policy - each of the motive by itself and they all in their entirety aggravate negative attitudes towards the armed forces in the society.

"Predominantly negative" - precisely this way the report by the Research Center for Social and Psychological Problems with the Main Political Department of the Soviet Army and Navy characterizes the attitudes of the population towards the army. The sociological study, conducted by the Center in 1989 and 1990 in various regions of the country showed that only 31 percent of those questioned believed that a military threat does exist for the USSR, 30 percent of young men of the draft age deemed strengthening of defense unnecessary, 48 percent of conscripts stated they were willing to serve, 40 percent of those questioned were religious believers (5).

Objection to Military Service by Regions

Presently the official circles advocate the view that the dramatic growth of the number of those refusing to perform military service results primarily from the republics and national districts upholding their right to self determination. Until recently it was true to fact. Residents of many Soviet republics regard the Soviet army as the army of a foreign power which backs up a regime infringing upon their national sovereignty and territorial integrity.

As was reported by the first deputy of the Chief Military Procurator Major General L.Zaika in 1989 in comparison with 1988 the number of objectors increased in the Baltic Military District 24 times, in the Carpathian - 10 times, in the Kiev - 23 times (2). In the entire Armenia recruit depots managed to recruit mere 411 men (6), which constituted about 7.5 percent of the total number of conscripts; in Lithuania - 40.7 percent, in Latvia - 55.5 percent, in Estonia - 42.1 percent of the total number of conscripts (7). According to the information of the Georgian Committee for boycotting the call-up for the Soviet Army in spring 1990 out of 15000 conscripts 13000 men refused to perform military service.

In spite of this, presently the number of refusals to perform military service is increasing mainly in the territo-ry of the RSFSR and in no way is connected with national movements. According to the information of L.Zaika, the number of objectors in 1989 in comparison with 1988 in the Volga-Urals Military District for example, increased 25 times - to an even greater degree than in the Baltic Military District(2). According to official forecasts, the rate which the process of refusing to perform military service has reached will not only fail to fall, but is even going to increase. And the assumption that the republics with strong national movements are not going to lead in that rate any longer is backed up by common sense - just with the course of time there will be fewer young people of the draft age there than conscientious objectors in the country as a whole.

Often enough local authorities not only refrain from putting obstacles in the objectors' way, but even try to put them under protection. Some republics have passed legislative acts elaborated for that particular purpose. A few examples are cited below.

On April 11, 1990 the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR passed the law "On the Service of Residents of the ESSR During the Transition Period", which is annulling legal force of articles of the Criminal Code of the ESSR envisaging responsibility for citizens evading drafts for military service and mobilization call-ups. Enterprises and organizations in the territory of the republic are instructed to stop administering the USSR law "On Compulsory Military Service".

On September 4, 1990 an extraordinary session of the Supreme Soviet of the Moldova SSR passed a resolution on military service of the citizens of the republic . It suspends the legal action of Articles 31, 62 and 63 of the USSR Constitution, laws "On Compulsory Military Service", "On Criminal Responsibility for Military Crimes" and a number of other legislative acts concerning military service. It has also been determined that citizens of the Moldova SSR shall not be called up for military service in the Armed Forces of the USSR and reservists shall not participate in reservist exercises until a special decision by the Supreme Soviet of the Moldova SSR. President of Moldova M.Snegur has issued a decree introducing deferment of active military service in the Armed Forces of the USSR until the negotiations between the governments of Moldova and the Union of SSR are over. The decree specifies that "the Military Commissariat of the Moldova SSR and district Military Commissariats shall have the right to call-up

for active military service in the Armed Forces of the USSR citizens of the Moldova SSR only by their letter of application and the obligatory letter of consent by the conscript's parents."

On May 3, 1990 the extraordinary session of the Supreme Soviet of Armenia passed a resolution, suspending call-up for active military service and at the same time exempting servicemen from Armenia for leaving their units without authorization from criminal responsibility.

At times similar legislative acts are passed even on the level of individual regions (oblasts) and cities. Thus, for example, in September 1990 the session of the Ivano-Frankovsk regional Soviet passed a resolution on serving active military duty by the resident of the Ivano-Frankovsk region which in particular exempts from responsibility those deserting from their military units.

On August 10 the presidium of the Lvov regional Soviet of People's Deputies passed a resolution "On Compulsory Military Service of the Conscripts of the Lvov Region". It specified that active duty servicemen who had been drafted from the Lvov region and served outside the territory of the Ukrainian SSR and left their units shall not be considered deserters. In September the presidium of the Lvov regional Soviet passed a new resolution instructing the executive committee of the region (oblast) and local Soviets of People's Deputies to suspend the activities of existing induction stations and not to establish new ones, not to conduct the next regular call-up of conscripts.

In the Russian Federation it is primarily in large residential areas that persons of draft age refuse to perform armed service. Thus, in 1989 in comparison with 1988 in the Leningrad Military District the number of objectors increased 20 times (2). Leningrad's Military Commissar Anatoliy Obukhov stated that the 1990 spring call-up resulted in 2114 criminal cases transferred to district Procurator's Offices to bring law suits against those evading military service. It was reported at the December 1990 session of the Leningrad Soviet Law Committee that the 1990 autumn call-up was fulfilled by 75-80 percent. 150 criminal cases were initiated against those who formally refused to perform military service(9).

In 1988 in Moscow 67 cases of evading military service were registered (10), in 1989 the Moscow district Military Commissariat transferred to the Procurator's Offices 323 cases against objectors(11), and in spring 1990 - 462 (1). During the 1990 spring call-up over a thousand and a half young men born in 1973 failed to appear at the Military Commissariats for conscription to the city's different induction stations. This information was made public by the Moscow Military Commissar Major General Vladimir Bespalov.

Prosecution for Refusal to Perform Military Service

The only change that occurred in the practices of criminal prosecution for refusal to perform military service was somewhat milder punishment, though not laid down in any legal document whatsoever. Presently debutante objectors are sentenced to usually up to a year and a half or two years of forced labor at "construction projects of the national economy " with escort free custody regime. However, convicts are always sent to perform forced labour far away from home and for the slightest violation of the daily routine as well as for being AWOL from the forced labour area the convict can be transferred to a criminal camp to serve the remaining part of his sentence which very often happens in practice. Those refusing to perform military service for the second time are sentenced as a rule to a term of two years in criminal camps.

Alongside with an avalanche-like increase in the number of refusals the number of cases grows that are passed from Military Commissariats to the Procurator office. However in spite of this the number of those convicted keeps stable at the previous level. Law enforcing bodies often complain of a veritable wave of cases of refusals to perform military service. Referring to the continuously aggravating crime-breeding situation in the country and to the fact that there is a lack of resources to investigate even aggravated crimes, they do not show any special zeal in bringing objectors to court. Is it however the only cause of such passiveness? Since a total prosecution of those refusing to perform military service would turn into mass scale repressions against a considerable part of the country's young generation.

Nevertheless, from time to time one or another objector stands trial. According to the information of the Ministry of Defense in 1988 144 objectors were convicted, and in 1989 - 292 (2). 38 persons out of those who refused to perform military service in the spring of 1990, had been convicted by the fall, 14 of them being Moscovites(1).

The number of conscientious objectors convicted for deserting from their units is not known. Overall data on desertion by Moscovites is as follows: 253 persons deserted from their military units in 1989, in the first four months of 1990 - 62 persons. 95 Moscovites who deserted from their units in 1989 and 1990 had remained unapprehended by spring 1990.

However, there is no information as to how many of them acted as conscientious objectors to military service. According to Article 247 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR and similar articles of the criminal codes of the union republics, peace time desertion for whatever reasons is punishable by a term of imprisonment of up to seven years.

Legislative Prospects in Resolving the Issueof Conscientious Objection to Armed Service

The question of conscientious objection to armed service apparently can be resolved in two ways: by transition to a professional army with the voluntary contractual enlistment principle and by introduction of alternative civil service.

Presently the overwhelming majority of public organizations of a democratic nature and many servicemen come out for a professional army. However, due to the wide-spread opinion on the consequent necessity to increase defense expenditures, professionalization of the Armed Forces is hardly a matter of the near future. So the only realistic option under the circumstances is the introduction of a civil alternative to military service.

Not so long ago the Defense Ministry officials responsible for the appropriate front of ideological work were asserting that there was no need of a special service of such nature. They argued that baptists and followers of some other religious sects were sometimes individually granted permission to perform non-combatant service in military- construction units. The Ministry of Defense used to sweep aside all the demands to create alternative civil service, explaining that in actual fact there was such a service in the country, namely construction battalions.

In spite of the fact that some military leaders are still making such assertions, a certain shift on this matter is being made in the official position. Not in the least it is prompted by demands of the international community voiced in a number of resolutions by the UN General Assembly, the UN Commission of the Economic and Social Council on Human Rights and by some other international governmental and public organizations. The thesis on necessity to acknowledge the right to conscientious objection is set aside in the Documents of the Paris and Copenhagen meetings of the CSCE Conference on the Human Dimension, the Soviet Union being a participating State in it ( see Appendix 3).

The first draft of the legislative act in this field to be submitted for public consideration was the document under the title "The Foundations of Legislation of the Union of SSR and Union Republics on Alternative Service". It was made public on November 14, 1990 at the meeting of representatives of public organizations in the Youth Committee of the USSR Supreme Soviet. The bill was autored by Lieutenant Colonel of Justice A. Pchelintsev, Ph.D., Law and Captain 3d rank M.Timofeyev. The Foundations define the notion and designation of alternative service, providing guidelines for granting it and serving its term in the territory of the USSR. Union republics are entitled to elaborate the more specific legislative acts.

Certain provisions of the draft Foundations must be mentioned here for even in case it is passed it does not ilegally rule out possible violation of human rights in connection with a call-up for military service. Thus, according to the bill only religious beliefs or convictions of a pacifist nature shall be considered as valid motives for granting alternative service. Should it even be devoid of abuse and should the committee aspire for the maximum objectiveness such order does not rule out mistakes and unfair decisions, as "conscientious convictions" are an entirely subjective notion and no committee is capable of determining their sincerity. The draft doesn't envisage a possibility of court appealing an unlawful decision by an alternative service committee.

However, despite all the above listed drawbacks the draft Foundations are an undeniable step forward along the way to ensuring the right to refuse military service. It is a unique example of official lawmaking aimed at developing a specific legislative act in this field. Such status is discriminatory against those who uphold philosophical, political or other views which are convictions of conscience conflicting with the necessity to perform military service. Besides, even those who do become entitled to an alternative service get no guarantee that indirectly they will not be involved in the operation of the state war machine. Thus the bill states it unambiguously that alternative service can be performed in the interests of defense at military farms and animal breeding farms and in administrative units, etc.

The term of alternative service as envisaged is one and a half times longer than that of active military service which in fact is a punishment for refusal to perform military service. Alternative service is granted by specially established committees having the authority to determine the sincerity and profoundness of convictions of conscripts applying for alternative service.

On December 26, 1990 newspaper "Krasnaya Zvezda" published a draft law of the USSR on compulsory military conscription and military service developed by the Ministry of Defense. The draft includes a provision envisaging a possibility of "non- military service "for conscientious objectors to military service. This draft like the previous one envisages a period of non- military service. Like in the draft by the Youth Committee the principle for granting non- military service is "permission through examination". However, the Ministry of Defense proposes that the functions of considering applications for non- military service should be entrusted not to the committees specially appointed for this purpose and including deputies and representatives of public organizations (as is proposed by the Youth Committee) but to the executive committees of local Soviets of People's Deputies. Besides, the draft by the Ministry of Defense does not envisage any possibility whatsoever of appealing decisions in connection with gra

nting non- military service. Such procedure undoubtedly will create innumerable opportunities for corruption and abuse of all kind.

Meanwhile, some republics have passed the laws on alternative civil service which are being administered more or less successfully. All the three Baltic republics: Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, have passed such laws. On June 20,1990 Georgia passed the law on labour (alternative) service, however, it hasn't entered into force because the legal norms enacting such law have not been adopted yet. The attitude of the union government to the attempts at ensuring the right to conscientious objections to military service on the level of republics is reflected to a full extent in the Decree of the President of the USSR of December 1, 1990 " On Certain Acts on the Matters of Defense Passed in the Union Republics". "The acts concerning call-up of citizens for active military service cause grave anxiety," states the Decree which regards the decisions contained in those acts as defying the USSR law " On Compulsory Military Service". Instead of bringing national legislation in conformity with international treaties and norm

s on human rights, item four of the Decree, on the contrary, instructs "The Procurator's Office of the Union of SSR to ensure court action against officials and citizens who evade disobey the USSR laws on matters of defense". Thus, along with more active international cooperation in this issue and the change of the official position in words, the practices of ensuring the right to refuse armed service remains unchanged and promise but toughening of repressions.

Public Movement for the Right to Refuse Military Service

Demands to ensure the right to refuse military service have evoked response from a wide variety of public organization throughout the country. It is connected with a multitude of reasons causing negative attitude of the public towards the army and unwillingness to perform military service. Many of these organizations upholding their inherent positions - legal, religious, pacifist or just humanitarian - take part in the Movement for the right to refuse military service and for introducing alternative service. However, these activities are often disorganized and uncoordinated which considerably reduces their effectiveness.

In this regard the campaign presently under way for collecting signatures under the appeal to the Supreme Soviets of the USSR and the RSFSR calling for immediate introduction of alternative service for conscientious objectors can be considered as the most coordinated and large-scale action (see Appendix 4). It was initiated by the Committee of Soldiers' Mothers, Transnational Radical Party, the "Civic Peace" International Association, Liberal Faction of the Deputies of the Moscow City Council, the "Shield" Union and the all- union society "Memorial". In, Europe, too and in the USA signatures under this appeal are being energetically collected. Several thousand of them have been gathered and passed to the Soviet Union. This petition campaign was launched in May 1990 by a similar appeal by 76 deputies of the Moscow Soviet to the Congress of People's Deputies of the RSFSR.

On the level of public organizations attempts at lawmaking are also made. The Radical Party has elaborated a draft law of the RSFSR on alternative civil service. Unlike the document by the Youth Committee of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, this draft of the Radical Party envisages a registration principle for granting alternative service. It means that those claiming the right to alternative service are relieved of the burden of proof of sincerity of their convictions. And an appropriate declaration setting out the individual's motives must suffice. According to the draft, alternative civil service shall not be performed at defense industry enterprises and shall not be associated with the Armed Forces of the USSR or other military organizations and formations. The length of alternative service shall be 24 months. Among the drawbacks of the draft should be mentioned the fact that it does not envisage the right to withdraw from the armed service on grounds of conscience.

Presently efforts are being made to unite all public forces concerned with the absence in the USSR of the right to have conscientious objections to military service. The role of a coordinating mechanism is supposed to be assumed by the emerging Movement for Demilitarization. On November 3, 1990 at the meeting of participants of various peace loving, law advocating and youth organizations the Organizing Committee of this movement was established. As the Declaration of Intent of the Organizing Committee states, the aim of the Movement for Demilitarization is "to overcome the cult of violence that has taken root in the society and that is expressed in total militarization, in the domination of military priorities over social ones, intensive military patriotic indoctrination of citizens since early childhood". Characterising the system of compulsory military service as the basic method of implanting militarist mentality, particularly among the youth, the Organizing Committee of the Movement for Demilitarization

as the first and foremost task to accomplish specified immediate introduction in the USSR of alternative civil service for those who cannot perform military service on the grounds of conscience.


1) Central Television "At the Service of Motherland" of October 21, 1990 ("Na Sluzhbe Otechestvu")

2) Newspaper "Union" No 72, 1990 ("Soyuz")

3) Newspaper "Soviet Culture" of October 6, 1990 ( ("Sovetskaya Kultura")

4) Newspaper "Soviet Patriot" No 38, 1990 ("Soviet Patriot")

5) Newspaper "Soviet Patriot" No 32, 1990 ("Soviet Patriot")

6) Newspaper "Red Star" No 217, 1990 ("Krasnaya Zvezda")

7) Newspaper "Red Warrior" No 262, 1990 ("Krasnyi Voin")

8) Newspaper "Red Star" No 242, 1990 ("Krasnaya Zvezda")

9) Newspaper "Express-news " No 50 , 1990 ("Ekspress- Khronica")

10) Journal "Communist of the Armed Forces" No 14, 1990 ("Kommunist Vooruzhonnyh Sil")

11) Report of the Moscow city Military Commissar V.Bespalov to the deputy's enquiry addressed by Deputy of the Moscow Soviet Alexander Kalinin, May 1990

12) Newspaper "Red Star" No 5, 1991 ("Krasnaya Zvezda"

13) Newspaper "Komsomol Truth" No 6, 1991 ("Komsomolskaya Pravda

14) Newspaper "Red Star" No 205, 1990 ("Krasnaya Zvezda").


Constitution of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics

Extraordinary Session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR,

Ninth Convocation, on October 7, 1977

Article 31.

Defense of the Socialist Motherland is one of the most important functions of the state and is the concerne of the whole people.

In order to defend the gains of socialism, the peaceful labour of the Soviet people, and the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the state, the USSR maintains armed forces and has instituted universal military service.

The duty of the Armed Forces of the USSR to the people is to provide reliable defense of the Socialist Motherland and to be in constant combat readiness. guaranteeing that any aggressor is instantly repulsed.

Article 63.

Military service in the ranks of the Armed Forces of the USSR is an honorable duty of Soviet citizens.


Criminal Code of the RSFSR

Third Session of the Supreme Soviet of the RFSFR,

Fifth Convocation, on October 27, 1960

Article 80.

Evading next regular call-up for active military service.

Evading next regular call-up for active military service shall be punished by imprisonment for a term of one to three years.

The same action committed through a self inflicted wound or by way of malingering, by forging documents or by way of other deception, and equally, committed under other aggravating circumstances shall be punished by imprisonment for a term of one to five years.


Paragraph 18 of the Document of the Copenhagen meeting of the Conference on Human Dimension

5-29 June 1990

(18) The participating States

(18.1) note that the United Nations Commission on Human Rights has recognized the right of everyone to have conscientious objection to military service;

(18.2) note recent measures taken by a number of participating States to permit exemption from compulsory military service on the basis of conscientious objections;

(18.3) note the activities of several non-governmental organizations on the question of conscientious objection to compulsory military service;

(18.4) agree to consider introducing, where this has not been yet done, various forms of alternative service, which are compatible with the reasons for conscientious objection, such forms of alternative service being in principle of a non-combatant or civilian nature,

in the public interest and of a non-punitive nature;

(18.5) will make available to the public information on this issue;

(18.6) will keep under consideration, within the framework of the Conference on the Human Dimension, the relevant questions related to the exemption from compulsory military service, where it exists, of individuals on the basis of conscientious objection to armed service, and will exchange information on these questions.


Appeal to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR

and the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR

We, the undersigned, acting on the belief that freedom of thought, conscience and personal convictions is one of the fundamental and inalienable rights of man, as laid down in Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of human rights, in Article 18 of the International Pact on civil and political rights, in a series of resolutions issued by the General Assembly of the UN and the UN ECOSOC's Commission for human rights as well as documents and decisions by the Paris and Copenhagen Conferences on human dimension of the SCSE, appeal to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR to recognize the right to refuse military service on grounds of personal convictions of conscience and to immediately undertake legislative action aimed at phasing in alternative civil service for those youths whose personal convictions will not allow them to perform military service. In making this appeal we emphasize that alternative service must be of a non-military and civil nature, meet social requirements, not

entail punitive repercussions, and in particular, the duration of alternative civil service must not exceed that of regular military service. We are convinced that the official recognition to refuse military service on grounds of personal convictions and the reinforcement of this right by way of legislation constitutes an important step along the road to the democratizing of Soviet society. Moreover, this will indirectly enhance the reduction of military expenses in the country. We are also convinced that the approval of a law granting the right to decline military service will also foster the future easing of international tension bolster the spirit of trust and collaboration in international relations, lessen the threat of war and also remove a number of political, legal and psychological hindrances which prevent the building of unified Europe, and especially the formation of a unified legal system for the entire European area.

Soldiers' Mothers Committee

The Transnational Radical Party

International Association "Civic Peace"

Liberal Faction of Moscow City Council

Union for Social Protection of Servicemen Recruits

and Members of their Families "Shield"

All-Union Research and Educational Society "Memorial"

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