RESULT OF THE I.L.C.'S WORK FOR THE INSTITUTION OF A PERMANENT INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT.
SUMMARY: The ILC (International Law Commission), UN juridical consultative body, has written a draft statute for the international criminal court. As a permanent criminal court, it will "exercise jurisdiction over the most serious crimes of concern to the international community as a whole". We would like to particularly underline the following main points: 1. the exclusion of the death penalty from the statute of the court; 2. its establishment (by an intergovernmental conference which binds the signatory States and allows to avoid decision by unanimity); 3. the possibility for the Security Council to extend its jurisdiction to other regions or countries in case of particularly serious situations.
- DRAFT STATUTE FOR AN INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT
Table of Contents
PART 1. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE COURT
Article 1 The Court
Article 2 Relationship of the Court to the United Nations
Article 3 Seat of the Court
Article 4 Status and legal capacity
PART 2. COMPOSITION AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE COURT
Article 5 Organs of the Court
Article 6 Qualification and election of judges
Article 7 Judicial vacancies
Article 8 The Presidency
Article 9 Chambers
Article 10 Independence of the judges
Article 11 Excusing and disqualification of judges
Article 12 The Procuracy
Article 13 The Registry
Article 14 Solemn undertaking
Article 15 Loss of office
Article 16 Privileges and immunities
Article 17 Allowances and expenses
Article 18 Working languages
Article 19 Rules of the Court
PART 3. JURISDICTION OF THE COURT
Article 20 Crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court
Article 21 Preconditions to the exercise of jurisdiction
Article 22 Acceptance of the jurisdiction of the Court for the purposes of article 21
Article 23 Action by the Security Council
Article 24 Duty of the Court as to jurisdiction
PART 4. INVESTIGATION AND PROSECUTION
Article 25 Complaint
Article 26 Investigation of alleged crimes
Article 27 Commencement of prosecution
Article 28 Arrest
Article 29 Pre trial detention or release
Article 30 Notification of the indictment
Article 31 Designation of persons to assist in a prosecution
PART 5. THE TRIAL
Article 32 Place of trial
Article 33 Applicable law
Article 34 Challenges to jurisdiction
Article 35 Issues of admissibility
Article 36 Procedure under articles 34 and 35
Article 37 Trial in the presence of the accused
Article 38 Functions and powers of the Trial Chamber
Article 39 Principle of legality (nullum crimen sine lege)
Article 40 Presumption of innocence
Article 41 Rights of the accused
Article 42 Non bis in idem
Article 43 Protection of the accused, victims and witnesses
Article 44 Evidence
Article 45 Quorum and judgment
Article 46 Sentencing
Article 47 Applicable penalties
PART 6. APPEAL AND REVIEW
Article 48 Appeal against judgment or sentence
Article 49 Proceedings on appeal
Article 50 Revision
PART 7. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND JUDICIAL ASSISTANCE
Article 51 Cooperation and judicial assistance
Article 52 Provisional measures
Article 53 Transfer of an accused to the Court
Article 54 Obligation to extradite or prosecute
Article 55 Rule of speciality
Article 56 Cooperation with States not parties to this Statute
Article 57 Communications and documentation
PART 8. ENFORCEMENT
Article 58 Recognition of judgments
Article 59 Enforcement of sentences
Article 60 Pardon, parole and commutation of sentences
B. DRAFT STATUTE OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT
The States parties to this Statute,
Desirinq to further international cooperation to.enhance the effective suppression and prosecution of crimes of international concern, and for that purpose to establish an international criminal court;
Emphasizing that such a court is intended to exercise jurisdiction only over the most serious crimes of concern to the international community as a whole;
Emphasizinq further that such a court is intended to be complementary to national criminal justice systems in cases where such trial procedures may not be available or may be ineffective;
Have agreed as follows:
PART 1. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE COURT
There is established an International Criminal Court ("the Court"), whose jurisdiction and functioning shall be governed by the provisions of this Statute.
Relationship of the Court to the United Nations
The President, with the approval of the States parties to this Statute ("States parties"), may conclude an agreement establishing an appropriate relationship between the Court and the United Nations.
Seat of the Court
1. The seat of the Court shall be established at ... in ... ("the host State").
2. The President, with the approval of the States parties, may conclude an agreement with the host State establishing the relationship between that State and the Court.
3. The Court may exercise its powers and functions on the territory of any State party and, by special agreement, on the territory of any other State.
Status and leqal capacity
1. The Court is a permanent institution open to States parties in accordance with this Statute. It shall act when required to consider a case submitted to it.
2. The Court shall enjoy in the territory of each State party such legal capacity as may be necessary for the exercise of its functions and the fulfilment of its purposes.
PART 2. COMPOSITION AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE COURT
Orqans of the Court
The Court consists of the following organs:
(a) a Presidency, as provided in article 8;
(b) an Appeals Chamber, Trial Chambers and other chambers, as provided in article 9;
(c) a Procuracy, as provided in article 12; and
(d) a Registry, as provided in article 13.
Qualification and election of judges
1. The judges of the Court shall be persons of high moral character, impartiality and integrity who possess the qualifications required in their respective countries for appointment to the highest judicial offices, and have, in addition:
(a) criminal trial experience;
(b) recognized competence in international law.
2. Each State party may nominate for election not more than two persons, of different nationality, who possess the qualification referred to in paragraph 1 (a) or that referred to in paragraph 1 (b), and who are willing to serve as may be required on the Court.
3. Eighteen judges shall be elected, by an absolute majority vote of the States parties by secret ballot. Ten judges shall first be elected, from among the persons nominated as having the qualification referred to in paragraph 1 (a). Eight judges shall then be elected, from among the persons nominated as having the qualification referred to in paragraph 1 (b).
4. No two judges may be nationals of the same State.
5. States parties should bear in mind in the election of the judges that the representation of the principal legal systems of the world should be assured.
6. Judges hold office for a term of nine years and, subject to paragraph 7 and article 7 (2), are not eligible for re election. A judge shall, however, continue in office in order to complete any case the hearing of which has commenced.
7. At the first election, six judges chosen by lot shall serve for a term of three years and are eligible for re election; six judges chosen by lot shall serve for a term of six years; and the remainder shall serve for a term of nine years.
8. Judges nominated as having the qualification referred to in paragraph 1 (a) or 1 (b), as the case may be, shall be replaced by persons nominated as having the same qualification.
1. In the event of a vacancy, a replacement judge shall be elected in accordance with article 6.
2. A judge elected to fill a vacancy shall serve for the remainder of the predecessor's term, and if that period is less than five years is eligible for re election for a further term.
1. The President, the first and second Vice Presidents and two alternate Vice Presidents shall be elected by an absolute majority of the judges. They shall serve for a term of three years or until the end of their term of office as judges, whichever is earlier.
2. The first or second Vice President, as the case may be, may act in place of the President in the event that the President is unavailable or disqualified. An alternate Vice President may act in place of either Vice President as required.
3. The President and the Vice Presidents shall constitute the Presidency which shall be responsibIe for:
(a) the due administration of the Court; and
(b) the other functions conferred on it by this Statute.
4. Unless otherwise indicated, pre-trial and other procedural functions conferred under this Statute on the Court may be exercised by the Presidency in any case where a chamber of the Court is not seized of the matter.
5. The Presidency may, in accordance with the Rules, delegate to one or more judges the exercise of a power vested in it under articles 26 (3), 27 (5), 28, 29 or 30 (3) in relation to a case, during the period before a Trial Chamber is established for that case.
1. As soon as possible after each election of judges to the Court, the Presidency shall in accordance with the Rules constitute an Appeals Chamber consisting of the President and six other judges, of whom at least three shall be judges elected from among the persons nominated as having the qualification referred to in article 6 (1) (b). The President shall preside over the Appeals Chamber.
2. The Appeals Chamber shall be constituted for a term of three years. Members of the Appeals Chamber shall, however, continue to sit on the Chamber in order to complete any case the hearing of which has commenced.
3. Judges may be renewed as members of the Appeals Chamber for a second or subsequent term.
4. Judges not members of the Appeals Chamber shall be available to serve on Trial Chambers and other chambers required by this Statute, and to act as substitute members of the Appeals Chamber, in the event that a member of that Chamber is unavailable or disqualified.
5. The Presidency shall nominate in accordance with the Rules five such judges to be members of the Trial Chamber for a given case. A Trial Chamber shall include at least three judges elected from among the persons nominated as having the qualification referred to in article 6 (1) (a).
6. The Rules may provide for alternate judges to be nominated to attend a trial and to act as members of the Trial Chamber in the event that a judge dies or becomes unavailable during the course of the trial.
7. No judge who is a national of a complainant State or of a State of which the accused is a national shall be a member of a chamber dealing with the case.
Independence of the judges
1. In performing their functions, the judges shall be independent.
2. Judges shall not engage in any activity which is likely to interfere with their judicial functions or to affect confidence in their independence. In particular, they shall not while holding the office of judge be a member of the legislative or executive branches of the Government of a State, or of a body responsible for the investigation or prosecution of crimes.
3. Any question as to the application of paragraph 2 shall be decided by the Presidency.
4. On the recommendation of the Presidency, the States parties may by a two-thirds majority decide that the work-load of the Court requires that the judges should serve on a full-time basis. In that case:
(a) existing judges who elect to serve on a full-time basis shall not hold any other office or employment; and
(b) judges subsequently elected shall not hold any other office or employment.
Excusing and disqualification of judges
1. The Presidency at the request of a judge may excuse that judge from the exercise of a function under this Statute.
2. Judges shall not participate in any case in which they have previously been involved in any capacity or in which their impartiality might reasonably be doubted on any ground, including an actual, apparent or potential conflict of interest.
3. The Prosecutor or the accused may request the disqualification of a judge under paragraph 2.
4. Any question as to the disqualification of a judge shall be decided by an absolute majority of the members of the Chamber concerned. The challenged judge shall not take part in the decision.
1. The Procuracy is an independent organ of the Court responsible for the investigation of complaints brought in accordance with this Statute and for the conduct of prosecutions. A member of the Procuracy shall not seek or act on instructions from any external source.
2. The Procuracy shall be headed by the Prosecutor, assisted by one or more Deputy Prosecutors, who may act in place of the Prosecutor in the event that the Prosecutor is unavailable. The Prosecutor and the Deputy Prosecutors shall be of different nationalities. The Prosecutor may appoint such other qualified staff as may be required.
3. The Prosecutor and Deputy Prosecutors shall be persons of high moral character and have high competence and experience in the prosecution of criminal cases. They shall be elected by secret ballot by an absolute majority of the States parties, from among candidates nominated by States parties. Unless a shorter term is otherwise decided on at the time of their election, they shall hold office for a term of five years and are eligible for re election.
4. The States parties may elect the Prosecutor and a Deputy Prosecutor on the basis that they will be available to serve as required.
5. The Prosecutor and Deputy Prosecutors shall not act in relation to a complaint involving a person of their own nationality.
6. The Presidency may excuse the Prosecutor or a Deputy Prosecutor at their request from acting in a particular case, and shall decide any question raised in a particular case as to the disqualification of the Prosecutor or a Deputy Prosecutor.
7. The staff of the Procuracy shall be subject to Staff Regulations drawn up by the Prosecutor so far as possible in conformity with the United Nations Staff Regulations and Staff Rules and approved by the Presidency.
1. On the proposal of the Presidency, the judges by an absolute majority by secret ballot shall elect a Registrar, who shall be the principal administrative officer of the Court. They may in the same manner elect a Deputy Registrar.
2. The Registrar shall hold office for a term of five years, is eligible for re election and shall be available on a full time basis. The Deputy Registrar shall hold office for a term of five years or such shorter term as may be decided on, and may be elected on the basis that the Deputy Registrar will be available to serve as required.
3. The Presidency may appoint or authorize the Registrar to appoint such other staff of the Registry as may be necessary.
4. The staff of the Registry shall be subject to Staff Regulations drawn up by the Registrar so far as possible in conformity with the United Nations Staff Regulations and Staff Rules, and approved by the Presidency.
Before first exercising their functions under this Statute, judges and other officers of the Court shall make a public and solemn undertaking to do so impartially and conscientiously.
Loss of office
1. A judge, the Prosecutor or other officer of the Court who is found to have committed misconduct or a serious breach of this Statue, or to be unable to exercise the functions required by this Statute because of long-term illness or disability, shall cease to hold office.
2. A decision as to the loss of office under paragraph 1 shall be made by secret ballot:
(a) in the case of the Prosecutor or a Deputy Prosecutor, by an absolute majority of the States parties;
(b) in any other case, by a two-thirds majority of the judges.
4. The judge, the Prosecutor or other officer whose conduct or fitness for office is impugned shall have full opportunity to present evidence and to make submissions but shall not otherwise participate in the discussion of the question.
Privileges and immunities
1. The judges, the Prosecutor, the Deputy Prosecutors and the staff of the Procuracy, the Registrar and the Deputy Registrar shall enjoy the privileges, immunities and facilities of a diplomatic agent within the meaning of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations of 16 April 1961.
2. The staff of the Registry shall enjoy the privileges, immunities and facilities necessary to the performance of their functions.
3. Counsel, experts and witnesses before the Court shall enjoy the privileges and immunities necessary to the independent exercise of their duties.
4. The judges may by an absolute majority decide to revoke a privilege or waive an immunity conferred by this article, other than an immunity of a judge, the Prosecutor or Registrar as such. In the case of other officers and staff of the Procuracy or Registry, they may do so only on the recommendation of the Prosecutor or Registrar, as the case may be.
Allowances and expenses
1. The President shall receive an annual allowance.
2. The Vice Presidents shall receive a special allowance for each day they exercise the functions of the President.
3. Subject to paragraph 4, the judges shall receive a daily allowance during the period in which they exercise their functions. They may continue to receive a salary payable in respect of another position occupied by them consistently with article 10.
4. If it is decided under article 10 (4) that judges shall thereafter serve on a full time basis, existing judges who elect to serve on a full time basis, and all judges subsequently elected, shall be paid a salary.
The working languages of the Court shall be English and French.
Rules of the Court
1. Subject to paragraphs 2 and 3, the judges may by an absolute majority make rules for the functioning of the Court in accordance with this Statute, including rules regulating:
(a) the conduct of investigations;
(b) the procedure to be followed and the rules of evidence to be applied;
(c) any other matter which is necessary for the implementation of this Statute.
2. The initial Rules of the Court shall be drafted by the judges within six months of the first elections for the Court, and submitted to a conference of States parties for approval. The judges may decide that a rule subsequently made under paragraph 1 should also be submitted to a conference of States parties for approval.
3. In any case to which paragraph 2 does not apply, rules made under paragraph 1 shall be transmitted to States parties and may be confirmed by the Presidency unless, within six months after transmission, a majority of States parties have communicated in writing their objections.
4. A rule may provide for its provisional application in the period prior to its approval or confirmation. A rule not approved or confirmed shall lapse.
PART 3. JURISDICTION OF THE COURT
Crimes within the jurisdiction of the Court
The Court has jurisdiction in accordance with this Statute with respect to the following crimes:
(a) the crime of genocide;
(b) the crime of aggression;
(c) serious violations of the laws and customs applicable in armed conflict;
(d) crimes against humanity;
(e) crimes, established under or pursuant to the treaty provisions listed in the Annex, which, having regard to the conduct alleged, constitute exceptionally serious crimes of international concern.
Preconditions to the exercise of jurisdiction
1. The Court may exercise its jurisdiction over a person with respect to a crime referred to in article 20 if:
(a) in a case of genocide, a complaint is brought under article 25 (1);
(b) in any other case, a complaint is brought under article 25 (2) and the jurisdiction of the Court with respect to the crime is accepted under article 22:
(i) by the State which has custody of the suspect with respect to the crime ("the custodial State"); and
(ii) by the State on the territory of which the act or omission in question occurred.
2. If, with respect to a crime to which paragraph 1 (b) applies, the custodial State has received, under an international agreement, a request from another State to surrender a suspect for the purposes of prosecution, then, unless the request is rejected, the acceptance by the requesting State of the Court's jurisdiction with respect to the crime is also required.
Acceptance of the jurisdiction of the Court for the pur oses of article 21
1. A State party to this Statute may:
(a) at the time it expresses its consent to be bound by the Statute, by declaration lodged with the depositary; or
(b) at a later time, by declaration lodged with the Registrar;
accept the jurisdiction of the Court with respect to such of the crimes referred to in article 20 as it specifies in the declaration.
2. A declaration may be of general application, or may be limited to particular conduct or to conduct committed during a particular period of time.
3. A declaration may be made for a specified period, in which case it may not be withdrawn before the end of that period, or for an unspecified period, in which case it may be withdrawn only upon giving six months' notice of withdrawal to the Registrar. Withdrawal does not affect proceedings already commenced under this Statute.
4. If under article 21 the acceptance of a State which is not a party to this Statute is required, that State may, by declaration lodged with the Registrar, consent to the Court exercising jurisdiction with respect to the crime.
Action by the Security Council
1. Notwithstanding article 21, the Court has jurisdiction in accordance with this Statute with respect to crimes referred to in article 20 as a consequence of the referral of a matter to the Court by the Security Council acting under Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations.
2. A complaint of or directly related to an act of aggression may not be brought under this Statute unless the Security Council has first determined that a State has committed the act of aggression which is the subject of the complaint.
3. No prosecution may be commenced under this Statute arising from a situation which is being dealt with by the Security Council as a threat to or breach of the peace or an act of aggression under Chapter VII of the Charter, unless the Security Council otherwise decides.
Duty of the Court as to jurisdiction
The Court shall satisfy itself that it has jurisdiction in any case brought before it.
PART 4. INVESTIGATION AND PROSECUTION
1. A State party which is also a Contracting Party to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide of 9 December 1948 may lodge a complaint with the Prosecutor alleging that a crime of genocide appears to have been committed.
2. A State party which accepts the jurisdiction of the Court under article 22 with respect to a crime may lodge a complaint with the Prosecutor alleging that such a crime appears to have been committed.
3. As far as possible a complaint shall specify the circumstances of the alleged crime and the identity and whereabouts of any suspect, and be accompanied by such supporting documentation as is available to the complainant State.
4. In a case to which article 23 (1) applies, a complaint is not required for the initiation of an investigation.
Investigation of alleged crimes
1. On receiving a complaint or upon notification of a decision of the Security Council referred to in article 23 (1), the Prosecutor shall initiate an investigation unless the Prosecutor concludes that there is no possible basis for a prosecution under this Statute and decides not to initiate an investigation, in which case the Prosecutor shall so inform the Presidency.
2. The Prosecutor may:
(a) request the presence of and question suspects, victims and witnesses;
(b) collect documentary and other evidence;
(c) conduct on site investigations;
(d) take necessary measures to ensure the confidentiality of information or the protection of any person;
(e) as appropriate, seek the cooperation of any State or of the United Nations.
3. The Presidency may, at the request of the Prosecutor, issue such subpoenas and warrants as may be required for the purposes of an investigation, including a warrant under article 28 (1) for the provisional arrest of a suspect.
4. If, upon investigation and having regard, inter alia, to the matters referred to in article 35, the Prosecutor concludes that there is no sufficient basis for a prosecution under this Statute and decides not to file an indictement, the Prosecutor shall so inform the Presidency giving details of the nature and basis of the complaint and of the reasons for not filing an indictment.
5. At the request of a complainant State or, in a case to which article 23 (1) applies, at the request of the Security Council, the Presidency shall review a decision of the Prosecutor not to initiate an investigation or not to file an indictment, and may request the Prosecutor to reconsider the decision.
6. A person suspected of a crime under this Statute shall:
(a) prior to being questioned, be informed that the person is a suspect and of the rights:
(i) to remain silent, without such silence being a consideration in the determination of guilt or innocence; and
(ii) to have the assistance of counsel of the suspect's choice or, if the suspect lacks the means to retain counsel, to have legal assistance assigned by the Court;
(b) not be compelled to testify or to confess guilt; and
(c) if questioned in a language other than a language the suspect understands and speaks, be provided with competent interpretation services and with a translation of any document on which the suspect is to be questioned.
Commencement of prosecution
1. If upon investigation the Prosecutor concludes that there is a prima facie case, the Prosecutor shall file with the Registrar an indictment containing a concise statement of the allegations of fact and of the crime or crimes with which the suspect is charged.
2. The Presidency shall examine the indictment and any supporting material and determine:
(a) whether a prima facie case exists with respect to a crime within the jurisdiction of the Court; and
(b) whether, having regard, inter alia, to the matters referred to in article 35, the case could on the information available be heard by the Court.
If so, it shall confirm the indictment and establish a trial chamber in accordance with article 9.
3. If, after any adjournment that may be necessary to allow additional material to be produced, the Presidency decides not to confirm the indictment, it shall so inform the complainant State or, in a case to which article 23 (1) applies, the Security Council.
4. The Presidency may at the request of the Prosecutor amend the indictment, in which case it shall make any necessary orders to ensure that the accused is notified of the amendment and has adequate time to prepare a defence.
5. The Presidency may make any further orders required for the conduct of the trial, including an order:
(a) determining the language or languages to be used during the trial;
(b) requiring the disclosure to the defence, within a sufficient time before the trial to enable the preparation of the defence, of documentary or other evidence available to the Prosecutor, whether or not the Prosecutor intends to rely on that evidence;
(c) providing for the exchange of information between the Prosecutor and the defence, so that both parties are sufficiently aware of the issues to be decided at the trial;
(d) providing for the protection of the accused, victims and witnesses and of confidential information.
1. At any time after an investigation has been initiated, the Presidency may at the request of the Prosecutor issue a warrant for the provisional arrest of a suspect if:
(a) there is probable cause to believe that the suspect may have committed a crime within the jurisdiction of the Court; and
(b) the suspect may not be available to stand trial unless provisionally arrested.
2. A suspect who has been provisionally arrested is entitled to release from arrest if the indictment has not been confirmed within 90 days of the arrest, or such longer time as the Presidency may allow.
3. As soon as practicable after the confirmation of the indictment, the Prosecutor shall seek from the Presidency a warrant for the arrest and transfer of the accused. The Presidency shall issue such a warrant unless it is satisfied that:
(a) the accused will voluntarily appear for trial; or
(b) there are special circumstances making it unnecessary for the time being to issue the warrant.
4. A person arrested shall be informed at the time of arrest of the reasons for the arrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges.
Pre trial detention or release
1. A person arrested shall be brought promptly before a judicial officer of the State where the arrest occurred. The judicial officer shall determine, in accordance with the procedures applicable in that State, that the warrant has been duly served and that the rights of the accused have been respected.
2. A person arrested may apply to the Presidency for release pending trial. The Presidency may release the person unconditionally or on bail if it is satisfied that the accused will appear at the trial.
3. A person arrested may apply to the Presidency for a determination of the lawfulness under this Statute of the arrest or detention. If the Presidency decides that the arrest or detention was unlawful, it shall order the release of the accused, and may award compensation.
4. A person arrested shall be held, pending trial or release on bail, in an appropriate place of detention in the arresting State, in the State in which the trial is to be held or if necessary, in the host State.
Notification of the indictment
1. The Prosecutor shall ensure that a person who has been arrested is personally served, as soon as possible after being taken into custody, with certified copies of the following documents, in a language understood by that person:
(a) in the case of a suspect provisionally arrested, a statement of the grounds for the arrest;
(b) in any other case, the confirmed indictment;
(c) a statement of the accused's rights under this Statute.
2. In any case to which paragraph (1) (a) applies, the indictment shall be served on the accused as soon as possible after it has been confirmed.
3. If, 60 days after the indictment has been confirmed, the accused is not in custody pursuant to a warrant issued under article 28 (3), or for some reason the requirementg of paragraph 1 cannot be complied with, the Presidency may on the application of the Progecutor prescribe some other manner of bringing the indictment to the attention of the accused.
Designation of persons to assist in a prosecution
1. A State party may, at the request of the Prosecutor, designate persons to assist in a prosecution.
2. Such persons should be available for the duration of the prosecution, unless otherwise agreed. They shall serve at the direction of the Prosecutor, and shall not seek or receive instructions from any Government or source other than the Prosecutor in relation to their exercise of functions under this article.
3. The terms and conditions on which persons may be designated under this article shall be approved by the Presidency on the recommendation of the Prosecutor.
PART 5. THE TRIAL
Place of trial
1. Unless otherwise decided by the Presidency, the place of the trial will be the seat of the Court.
The Court shall apply:
(a) this Statute;
(b) applicable treaties and the principles and rules of general international law; and
(c) to the extent applicable, any rule of national law.
Challenges to jurisdiction
Challenges to the jurisdiction of the Court may be made, in accordance with the Rules:
(a) prior to or at the commencement of the hearing, by an accused or any interested State; and
(b) at any later stage of the trial, by an accused.
Issues of admissibility
The Court may, on application by the accused or at the request of an interested State at any time prior to the commencement of the trial, or of its own motion, decide, having regard to the purposes of this Statute set out in the preamble, that a case before it is inadmissible on the ground that the crime in question:
(a) has been duly investigated by a State with jurisdiction over it, and the decision of that State not to proceed to a prosecution is apparently well founded;
(b) is under investigation by a State which has or may have jurisdiction over it, and there is no reason for the Court to take any further action for the time being with respect to the crime; or
(c) is not of such gravity to justify further action by the Court.
Procedure under articles 34 and 35
1. In proceedings under articles 34 and 35, the accused and the complainant State have the right to be heard.
2. Proceedings under articles 34 and 35 shall be decided by the Trial Chamber, unless it considers, having regard to the importance of the issues involved, that the matter should be referred to the Appeals Chamber.
Trial in the presence of the accused
1. As a general rule, the accused should be present during the trial.
2. The Trial Chamber may order that the trial proceed in the absence of the accused if:
(a) the accused is in custody, or has been released pending trial, and for reasons of security or the ill health of the accused it is undesirable for the accused to be present;
(b) the accused is continuing to disrupt the trial; or
(c) the accused has escaped from lawful custody under this Statute or has broken bail.
3. The Chamber shall, if it makes an order under paragraph 2, ensure that the rights of the accused under this Statute are respected, and in particular:
(a) that all reasonable steps have been taken to inform the accused of the charge; and
(b) that the accused is legally represented, if necessary by a lawyer appointed by the Court.
4. In cases where a trial cannot be held because of the deliberate absence of an accused, the Court may establish, in accordance with the Rules, an Indictment Chamber for the purpose of:
(a) recording the evidence;
(b) considering whether the evidence establishes a Drima facie case of a crime within the jurisdiction of the Court; and
(c) issuing and publishing a warrant of arrest in respect of an accused against whom a prima facie case is established.
5. If the accused is subsequently tried under this Statute:
(a) the record of evidence before the Indictment Chamber shall be admissible;
(b) any judge who was a member of the Indictment Chamber may not be a member of the Trial Chamber.
Functions and powers of the Trial Chamber
1. At the commencement of the trial, the Trial Chamber shall:
(a) have the indictment read;
(b) ensure that articles 27 (5) (b) and 30 have been complied with sufficiently in advance of the trial to enable adequate preparation of the defence;
(c) satisfy itself that the other rights of the accused under this Statute have been respected; and
(d) allow the accused to enter a plea of guilty or not guilty.
2. The Chamber shall ensure that a trial is fair and expeditious, and is conducted in accordance with this Statute and the Rules, with full respect for the rights of the accused and due regard for the protection of victims and witnesses.
3. The Chamber may, subject to the Rules, hear charges against more than one accused arising out of the same factual situation.
4. The trial shall be held in public, unless the Chamber determines that certain proceedings be in closed session in accordance with article 43, or for the purpose of protecting confidential or sensitive information which is to be given in evidence.
5. The Chamber shall, subject to this Statute and the Rules have, inter alia, the power on the application of a party or of its own motion, to:
(a) issue a warrant for the arrest and transfer of an accused who is not already in the custody of the Court;
(b) require the attendance and testimony of witnesses;
(c) require the production of documentary and other evidentiary materials;
(d) rule on the admissibility or relevance of evidence;
(e) protect confidential information; and
(f) maintain order in the course of a hearing.
7. The Chamber shall ensure that a complete record of the trial, which accurately reflects the proceedings, is maintained and preserved by the Registrar.
Principle of legality (nullum crimen sine lege)
An accused shall not be held guilty:
(a) in the case of a prosecution with respect to a crime referred to in article 20 (a) to (d), unless the act or omission in question constituted a crime under international law;
(b) in the case of a prosecution with respect to a crime referred to in article 20 (e), unless the treaty in question was applicable to the conduct of the accused;
at the time the act or omission occurred.
Presumption of innocence
An accused shall be presumed innocent until proved guilty in accordance with,law. The onus is on the Prosecutor to establish the guilt of the accused beyond reasonable doubt.
Rights of the accused
1. In the determination of any charge under this Statute, the accuqed is entitled to a fair and public hearing, subject to article 43, and to the following minimum guarantees:
(a) to be informed promptly and in detail, in a language which the accused understands, of the nature and cause of the charge;
(b) to have adequate time and facilities for the preparation of the defence, and to communicate with counsel of the accused's choosing;
(c) to be tried without undue delay;
(d) subject to article 37 (2), to be present at the trial, to conduct the defence in person or through legal assistance of the accused's choosing, to be informed, if the accused does not have legal assistance, of this right and to have legal assistance assigned by the Court, without payment if the accused lacks sufficient means to pay for such assistance;
(e) to examine or have examined, the prosecution witnesses and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses for the defence under the same conditions as witnesses for the prosecution;
(f) if any of the proceedings of or documents presented to the Court are not in a language the accused understands and speaks, to have, free of any cost, the assistance of: a competent interpreter and such translations as are necessary to meet the requirements of fairness;
(g) not to be compelled to testify or to confess guilt.
2. Exculpatory evidence that becomes available to the Procuracy prior to the conclusion of the trial shall be made available to the defence. In case of doubt as to the application of this paragraph or as to the admissibility of the evidence, the Trial Chamber shall decide.
Non bis in idem
1. No person shall be tried before any other court for acts constituting a crime of the kind referred to in article 20 for which that person has already been tried by the Court.
2. A person who has been tried by another court for acts constituting a crime of the kind referred to in article 20 may be tried under this Statute only if:
(a) the acts in question were characterized by that court as an ordinary crime and not as a crime which is within the jurisdiction of the Court; or
(b) the proceedings in the other court were not impartial or independent or were designed to shield the accused from international criminal responsibility or the case was not diligently prosecuted.
3. In considering the penalty to be imposed on a person convicted under this Statute, the Court shall take into account the extent to which a penalty imposed by another court on the same person for the same act has already been served.
Protection of the accused, victims and witnesses
The Court shall take necessary measures available to it to protect the accused, victims and witnesses and may to that end conduct closed proceedings or allow the presentation of evidence by electronic or other special means.
1. Before testifying, each witness shall, in accordance with the Rules, give an undertaking as to the truthfulness of the evidence to be given by that witness.
2. States parties shall extend their laws of perjury to cover evidence given under this Statute by their nationals, and shall cooperate with the Court in investigating and where appropriate prosecuting any case of suspected perjury.
3. The Court may require to be informed of the nature of any evidence before it is offered so that it may rule on its relevance or admissibility.
4. The Court shall not require proof of facts of common knowledge but may take judicial notice of them.
5. Evidence obtained by means of a serious violation of this Statute or of other rules of international law shall not be admissible.
Quorum and judgment
1. At least four members of the Trial Chamber must be present at each stage of the trial.
2. The decisions of the Trial Chamber shall be taken by a majority of the judges. At least three judges must concur in a decision as to conviction or acquittal and as to the sentence to be imposed.
3. If after sufficient time for deliberation a Chamber which has been reduced to four judges is unable to agree on a decision, it may order a new trial.
4. The deliberations of the Court shall be and remain secret.
5. The judgment shall be in writing and shall contain a full and reasoned statement of the findings and conclusions. It shall be the sole judgment issued, and shall be delivered in open court.
1. In the event of a conviction, the Trial Chamber shall hold a further hearing to hear any evidence relevant to sentence, to allow the Prosecutor and the defence to make submissions and to consider the appropriate sentence to be imposed.
2. In imposing sentence, the Trial Chamber should take into account such factors as the gravity of the crime and the lndividual circumstances of the convicted person.
1. The Court may impose on a person convicted of a crime under this Statute one or more of the following penalties:
(a) a term of life imprisonment, or of imprisonment for a specified number of years;
(b) a fine.
2. In determining the length of a term of imprisonment or the amount of a fine to be imposed, the Court may have regard to the penalties provided for by the law of:
(a) the State of which the convicted person is a national;
(b) the State where the crime was committed; and
(c) the State which had custody of and jurisdiction over the accused.
3. Fines paid may be transferred, by order of the Court, to one or more of the following:
(a) the Registrar, to defray the costs of the trial;
(b) a State the nationals of which were the victims of the crime;
(c) a trust fund established by the Secretary General of the United Nations for the benefit of victims of crime.
PART 6. APPEAL AND REVIEW
Appeal against judgement or sentence
1. The Prosecutor and the convicted person may, in accordance with the Rules, appeal against a decision under articles 45 or 47 on grounds of procedural unfairness, error of fact or of law, or disproportion between the crime and the sentence.
2. Unless the Trial Chamber otherwise orders, a convicted person shall remain in custody pending an appeal.
Proceedings on appeal
1. The Appeals Chamber has all the powers of the Trial Chamber.
2. If the Appeals Chamber finds that the proceedings appealed from were unfair or that the decision is vitiated by error of fact or law, it may:
(a) if the appeal is brought by the convicted person, reverse or amend the decision, or, if necessary, order a new trial;
(b) if the appeal is brought by the Prosecutor against an acquittal, order a new trial.
3. If in an appeal against sentence the Chamber finds that the sentence is manifestly disproportionate to the crime, it may vary the sentence in accordance with article 47.
4. The decision of the Chamber shall be taken by a majority of the judges, and shall be delivered in open court. Six judges constitute a quorum.
5. Subject to article 50, the decision of the Chamber shall be final.
1. The convicted person or the Prosecutor may, in accordance with the Rules, apply to the Presidency for revision of a conviction on the ground that evidence has been discovered which was not available to the applicant at the time the conviction was pronounced or affirmed and which could have been a decisive factor in the conviction.
2. The Presidency shall request the Prosecutor or the convicted person, as the case may be, to present written observations on whether the application should be accepted.
3. If the Presidency is of the view that the new evidence could lead to the revision of the conviction, it may:
(a) reconvene the Trial Chamber;
(b) constitute a new Trial Chamber; or
(c) refer the matter to the Appeals Chamber;
with a view to the Chamber determining, after hearing the parties, whether the new evidence should lead to a revision of the conviction.
PART 7. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND JUDICIAL ASSISTANCE
Cooperation and judicial assistance
1. States parties shall cooperate with the Court in connection with criminal investigations and proceedings under this Statute.
2. The Registrar may transmit to any State a request for cooperation and judicial assistance with respect to a crime, including, but not limited to:
(a) the identification and location of persons;
(b) the taking of testimony and the production of evidence;
(c) the service of documents;
(d) the arrest or detention of persons; and
(e) any other request which may facilitate the administration of justice, including provisional measures as required.
3. Upon receipt of a request under paragraph 2:
(a) in a case covered by article 21 (1) (a), all States parties;
(b) in any other case, States parties which have accepted the jurisdiction of the Court with respect to the crime in question;
shall respond without undue delay to the request.
1. In case of need, the Court may request a State to take necessary provisional measures, including the following:
(a) to provisionally arrest a suspect;
(b) to seize documents or other evidence; or
(c) to prevent injury to or the intimidation of a witness or the destruction of evidence.
2. The Court shall follow up a request under paragraph 1 by providing, as soon as possible and in any case within 28 days, a formal request for assistance complying with article 57.
Transfer of an accused to the Court
1. The Registrar shall transmit to any State on the territory of which the accused may be found a warrant for the arrest and transfer of an accused issued under article 28, and shall request the cooperation of that State in the arrest and transfer of the accused.
2. Upon receipt of a request under paragraph 1:
(a) all States parties:
(i) in a case covered by article 21 (1) (a), or
(ii) which have accepted the jurisdiction of the Court with respect to the crime in question;
shall, subject to paragraphs 5 and 6, take immediate steps to arrest and transfer the accused to the Court;
(b) in the case of a crime to which article 20 (e) applies, a State party which is a party to the treaty in question but which has not accepted the Court's jurisdiction with respect to that crime shall, if it decides not to transfer the accused to the Court, forthwith take all necessary steps to extradite the accused to a requesting State or refer the case to its competent authorities for the purpose of prosecution;
(c) in any other case, a State party shall consider whether it can, in accordance with its legal procedures, take steps to arrest and transfer the accused to the Court, or whether it should take steps to extradite the accused to a requesting State or refer the case to its competent authorities for the purpose of prosecution.
3. The transfer of an accused to the Court constitutes, as between States parties which accept the jurisdiction of the Court with respect to the crime, sufficient compliance with a provision of any treaty requiring that a suspect be extradited or the case referred to the competent authorities of the requested State for the purpose of prosecution.
4. A State party which accepts the jurisdiction of the Court with respect to the crime shall, as far as possible, give priority to a request under paragraph 1 over requests for extradition from other States.
5. A State party may delay complying with paragraph 2 if the accused is in its custody or control and is being proceeded against for a serious crime, or serving a sentence imposed by a court for a crime. It shall within 45 days of receiving the request inform the Registrar of the reasons for the delay. In such cases, the requested State:
(a) may agree to the temporary transfer of the accused for the purpose of standing trial under this Statute; or
(c) shall comply with paragraph 2 after the prosecution has been completed or abandoned or the sentence has been served, as the case may be.
6. A State party may, within 45 days of receiving a request under paragraph 1, file a written application with the Registrar requesting the Court to set aside the request on specified grounds. Pending a decision of the Court on the application, the State concerned may delay complying with paragraph 2, but shall take any provisional measures requested by the Court.
Obligation to extradite or prosecute
In a case of a crime referred to in article 20 (e), a custodial State party to this Statute which is a party to the treaty in question but which has not accepted the Court's jurisdiction with respect to the crime for the purpo e8 of article 21 (1) (b) (i) shall either take all necessary steps to extradite the suspect to a requesting State for the purpose of prosecution or refer the case to its competent authorities for that purpose.
Rule of sociality
1. A person transferred to the Court under article 53 shall not be subject to prosecution or punishment for any crime other than that for which the person was transferred.
2. Evidence provided under this Part shall not, if the State when providing it 80 requests, be used as evidence for any purpoge other than that for which it was provided, unless this is necessary to preserve the right of an accused under article 41 (2).
3. The.Court may request the State concerned to waive the requirements of i paragraphs 1 or 2, for the reasons and purposes specified in the request.
Cooperation with States not parties to this Statute
States not parties to this Statut may assiat in relation to the matters, referred to in this Part on the basis of comity, a unilateral declaration, an ad hoc arrangement or other agreement with the Court.
Communications and documentation
1. Requests under this Part shall be in writing, or be forthwith reduced to writing, and shall be between the competent national authority and the Registrar. States parties shall inform the Registrar of the name and address of their national authority for this purpose.
2. When appropriate, communications may also be made through the International Criminal Police Organization.
3. A request under this Part shall include the following, as applicable:
(a) a brief statement of the purpose of the request and of the assistance sought, including the legal basis and grounds for the request;
(b) information concerning the person who is the subject of the request on the evidence sought, in sufficient detail to enable identification;
(c) a brief description of the essential facts underlying the request; and
(d) information concerning the complaint or charge to which the request relates and of the basis for the Court's jurisdiction.
4. A requested State which considers the information provided insufficient to enable the request to be complied with may seek further particulars.
PART 8. ENFORCEMENT
Recognition of judgments
States parties undertake to recognize the judgments of the Court.
Enforcement of sentences
1. A sentence of imprisonment shall be served in a State designated by the Court from a list of States which have indicated to the Court their willingness to accept convicted persons.
2. If no State is designated under paragraph 1, the sentence of imprisonment shall be served in a prison facility made available by the host State.
3. A sentence of imprisonment shall be subject to the supervision of the Court in accordance with the Rules.
Pardon, parole and commutation of sentences
1. If, under a generally applicable law of the State of imprisonment, a person in the same circumstances who had been convicted for the same conduct by a court of that State would be eligible for pardon, parole or commutation of sentence, the State shall so notify the Court.
2. If a notification has been given under paragraph 1, the prisoner may apply to the Court in accordance with the Rules, seeking an order for pardon, parole or commutation of the sentence.
3. If the Presidency decides that an application under paragraph 2 is apparently well founded, it shall convene a Chamber of five judges to consider and decide whether in the interests of justice the person convicted should be pardoned or paroled or the sentence commuted, and on what basis.
4. When imposing a sentence of imprisonment, a Chamber may stipulate that the sentence is to be served in accordance with specified laws as to pardon, parole or commutation of sentence of the State of imprisonment. The consent of the Court is not required to subsequent action by that State in conformity with those laws, but the Court shall be given at least 45 days' notice of any decision which might materially affect the terms or extent of the imprisonment.
5. Except as provided in paragraphs 3 and 4, a person serving a sentence imposed by the Court is not to be released before the expiry of the sentence.
Crimes pursuant to Treaties (see art. 20 (e))
1. Grave breaches of:
(i) the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field of 12 August 1949, as defined by Article 50 of that Convention;
(ii) the Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea of 12 August 1949, as defined by Article 51 of that Convention;
(iii) the Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War of 12 August 1949, as defined by Article 130 of that Convention;
(iv) the Geneva Convention relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War of 12 August 1949, as defined by Article 147 of that Convention;
(v) Protocol I Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts of June 1977, as defined by Article 85 of that Protocol.
2. The unlawful seizure of aircraft as defined by Article 1 of the Hague Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft of 16 December 1970.
3. The crimes defined by Article 1 of the Montreal Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Civil Aviation of 23 September 1971.
4. Apartheid and related crimes as defined by Article II of the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid of 30 November 1973.
5. The crimes defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Crimes against Internationally Protected Persons, including Diplomatic Agents of 14 December 1973.
6. Hostage taking and related crimes as defined by Article 1 of the International Convention against the Taking of Hostages of 17 December 1979.
7. The crime of torture made punishable pursuant to Article 4 of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment of 10 December 1984.
8. The crimes defined by Article 3 of the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Maritime Navigation of 10 March 1988 and by Article 2 of the Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety of Fixed Platforms Located on the Continental Shelf of 10 March 1988.
9. Crimes involving illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances as envisaged by Article 3 (1) of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 20 December 1988 which, having regard to Article 2 of the Convention, are crimes with an international dimension.